Abstract

Low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD) thin-film Si3N4 waveguides have been fabricated on Si substrate within a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication pilot line. Three kinds of geometries (channel, rib, and strip-loaded) have been simulated, fabricated, and optically characterized in order to optimize waveguide performances. The number and optical confinement factors of guided optical modes have been simulated, taking into account sidewall effects caused by the etching processes, which have been studied by scanning electron microscopy. Optical guided modes have been observed with a mode analyzer and compared with simulation expectations to confirm the process parameters. Propagation loss measurements at 780 and 632.8 nm have been performed by both using the cutback technique and measuring the drop of intensity of the top scattered light along the length of the waveguide. Loss coefficients of approximately 0.1 dB/cm have been obtained for channel waveguides. These data are very promising in view of the development of Si-integrated photonics.

© 2004 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. May, S. Basu, G. L.-T. Chiu and G. Arjavalingam, "Modal dispersion and attenuation measurements of silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride waveguides using a streak camera", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 235-238, Feb. 1990.

Other (14)

G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd and H. E. Jackson, "Single polarization optical waveguide on silicon", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, pp. 575-579, Mar. 1991 .

D. P. Seraphin and D. E. Barr, "Interconnect and packaging technology in the 90's", in Proc. Int. Society Optical Engineering (SPIE), vol. 1390, 1990, pp. 39-54.

R. Haveman, "Scaling and integration challenges for Cu/low k dielectrics", presented at the Workshop Processing ULSI: Transistors to Interconnects, Austin, TX, Apr. 22, 1999.

L. Pavesi, "Will silicon be the photonics material of the third millennium?", J. Physics Condensed Matter Topical R., vol. 15, pp. R1169-1196, Apr. 2003.

E. Degoli, Ed. "Optoelectronic Interconnects for Integrated Circuits-Achievements 1998-2001 Office for Official Publications European Communities Luxembourg", EC, 2001.

H. Wong, "Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices", Microelectron. Reliab., vol. 42, pp. 317-326, 2002.

Y. Hibino, "Passive optical devices for photonic networks", IEICE Trans. Commun. (Japan), vol. E83-B, pp. 2178 -2190, Oct. 2000.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguide using atomic force microscope", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 4116-4118, Nov. 2003.

A. S. Sudbo, "Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 342 -345, Mar. 1993.

E. D. Palik, Ed. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, New York: Academic, 1985.

T. Inukai and K. Ono, "Optical characteristics of amorphous silicon nitride thin films prepared by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-chemical-vapor-deposition", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part I, vol. 33, no. 5A, pp. 2593 -2598, May 1994.

D. A. P. Bulla, B. V. Borges, M. A. Romero, N. I. Morimoto, L. G. Neto and A. L. Cortes, "Design and fabrication of SiO2 / Si3N4 CVD optical waveguides", in Proc. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf., SBMO/IEEE MTT-S, APS, LEOS (IMOC'99), vol. 2, Aug. 1999, pp. 454-457.

R. M. de Ridder, K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck and H. Albers, "Silicon oxynitride waveguiding structures for application in optical communication", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron (Special Issue on Silicon-Based Optoelectronics), vol. 4, pp. 930-937, Nov.-Dec. 1998.

C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker and J. J. Baumberg, "Visible photonic band gap engineering in silicon nitride waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, pp. 991-993, Feb. 2000.

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