Abstract

An accurate model has been developed to study photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifiers. The proposed approach calculates the Raman gain efficiency starting from the knowledge of the fiber cross-sectional characteristics,i.e., the geometric parameters and the germania concentration in the doped area. The model allows the study of the Raman amplification process in a photonic crystal fiber with any air-hole dimension and disposition, with or without a central doped area, as well as in standard single-mode fibers with an arbitrary refractive-index profile. This flexibility allows identification of the optimum values of the physical and geometrical photonic crystal fiber parameters,and thus it guarantees an efficient design for Raman amplifiers. For example,a Raman gain of 13.7 dB at 1554.8 nm has been obtained with a 6-km-long low-loss germania-doped triangular photonic crystal fiber with d/Lambda=0.44 and Lambda=4.2 µm.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (22)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. New York: Academic, 1995.

K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Kurokawa and K. Nakajima, "Low water peak photonic crystal fibers", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communications, Rimini, Italy,Postdeadline paper Th4.1.6, Sept. 21-25, 2003.

W. Zhi, R. Guobin, L. Shuqin and J. Shuisheng, "Loss properties due to Rayleigh scattering in different types of fiber", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, pp. 39-47, Jan. 2003.

F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, M. Fuochi, S. Selleri and L. Vincetti, "Characterization of microstructured optical fibers for wideband dispersion compensation", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A. Opt. Image Sci. , vol. 20, pp. 1958-1962, Oct. 2003.

A. H. Bouk, A. Cucinotta, F. Poli and S. Selleri, "Dispersion properties of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 941-946, Mar. 2003 .

A. Cucinotta, F. Poli, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti and M. Zoboli, "Amplification properties of Er3+-doped photonic crystal fibers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 21, pp. 782-788, Mar. 2003.

D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta and S. Selleri, "Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Exp., vol. 10, pp. 1314-1319, Nov. 2002.

L. Farr, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan and P. J. Roberts, "Low loss photonic crystal fiber", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communications-Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication (ECOC-IOOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,Postdeadline paper PD 1.3, Sept. 8-12 , 2002.

M. Fuochi, F. Poli, S. Selleri, A. Cucinotta and L. Vincetti, "Raman amplification properties of silica and tellurite photonic crystal fibers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications-Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication (ECOC-IOOC), 2003, pp. 622-623.

V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, pp. 2641-2645, Oct. 2003.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt and M. E. Lines, "A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fibers with arbitrary index profile", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 24-26, Jan. 2002.

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communication systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. , 2003, pp. TuC1-1-TuC1-25.

A. Evans, "Applications of Raman gain in optical transmission systems", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications-Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication (ECOC-IOOC), vol. 5, 2003, pp. 156-183.

Y. Emori, K. Tanaka and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat-gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by 12-wavelength-channel WDM laser diode unit", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1355-1356, Aug. 1999.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. Demarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. Digiovanni, "Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 262-264, Feb. 1997.

C. Fludger, A. Maroney, N. Jolley and R. Mears, "An analysis of the improvements in OSNR from distributed Raman amplifiers using modern transmission fibers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf , 2000, pp. 100-102.

A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers and their applications", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications-Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication (ECOC-IOOC), vol. 5, 2003, pp. 324-347.

P. S. J. Russell, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts and H. Sabert, "Photonic crystal fibers: mastering the flow of light", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opticall Communications-Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication (ECOC-IOOC), 2003, pp. 408-409.

C. J. S. de Matos, K. P. Hansen and J. R. Taylor, "Experimental characterization of Raman gain efficiency of holey fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 424-425, Mar. 2003.

J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, W. Belardi, J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, "Continous-wave pumped holey fiber Raman laser", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. , 2002, pp. 315-317.

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