Abstract

This paper describes the subsystem design and performance of a 256 × 256-port micromechanical beam-steering optical cross-connect with 1.33-dB average loss, which can provide 238 × 238-port cross-connect with a maximum loss of less than 2 dB. This paper describes the design chosen and analyzes the tolerance ranges required to produce low loss and simulate the expected loss distribution of the fabric. The method of establishing and testing the connections is also described. The simulation is compared with the measured system, and the expected and measured static and dynamic crosstalk are compared.

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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (37)

V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, R. C. Giles and F. Pardo, "Micro-electro-mechanical optical device", U.S. Patent 6 300 619, Oct. 9, 2001.

K. Bergman, N. Bonadeo, I. Brener and K. Chiang, "Ultra-high capacity MEMS based optical cross-connects", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4408, Cannes, Frances, 2001, pp. 2-5.

K. Bergman, "Overview of high capacity optical cross-connects", in 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2001 (LEOS 2001), vol. 1, Nov. 2001, pp. 224-225.

P. B. Chu, S. S. Lee and S. Park, "MEMS: The path to large optical crossconnects", IEEE Commun Mag., vol. 40, pp. 80-87, Mar. 2002.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, Y. Shifu, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal and J. E. Bowers, "Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 9, pp. 571-578, Mar.-Apr. 2003.

N. R. Basavanhally, "Opto-mechanical alignment and assembly of 2D-array components", in 1993 IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symp. Dig., Mar. 26 1993, pp. 023-027.

G. M. Proudley, C. S. Stace and H. White, "Fabrication of 2-dimensional fiber optic arrays for an optical crossbar switch", Opt. Eng., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 627-635, Feb. 1994.

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik and S. J. Hinterlong, "Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems", Opt. Eng., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 2979-2985, Sept. 1994.

F. Pardo, V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, H. Bair, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, G. R. Bogart, C. A. Bolle, J. E. Bower, D. Carr, H. B. Chan, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, C. R. Giles, L. Gomez, S. Goyal, D. S. Greywall, M. Haueis, R. C. Keller, J. Kim, F. P. Klemens, P. Kolodner, A. Kornblit, T. Kroupenkine, W. Lai, V. Lifton, J. Q. Liu, Y. Low, W. Mansfield, D. Marom, J. F. Miner, D. T. Neilson, M. Paczkowski, C.-S. Pai, A. Ramirez, D. Ramsey, S. Rogers, R. Ryf, R. Scotti, H. Shea, M. E. Simon, H. T. Soh, H. Tang, J. A. Taylor, K. Teffeau, J. Vuillemin and J. Weld, "Optical MEMS devices for telecom systems", in Proc. SPIE's Microtechnologies New Millennium Conf., Canary Islands, Spain,May 19-21 2003, pp. 5116 -59.

A. Gasparyan, V. A. Aksyuk, P. Busch and S. Arney, "Mechanical reliability of surface-micromachined self-assembling two-axis MEMS tilting mirrors," in Proc. SPIE MEMS Reliability Critical Applications,, Santa Clara, CA: 2000,vol. 4180, pp. 86-90.

M. Kozhevnikov, N. R. Basavanhally, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, P. R. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, R. Ryf, A. Gasparyan, A. R. Papazian, A. Olkhovets, J. Kim, D. T. Neilson, V. A. Aksyuk and J. V. Gates, "Compact 64 × 64 micromechanical optical crossconnect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 993-995, July 2003.

P. H. Malyak, D. L. Kent, P. R. Kolodner and J. Crawford, "Interferometric measurements of back focal length and insertion loss of precision microlens arrays", in Proc. SPIE Gradient Index, Miniature, Diffractive Optical Systems II, vol. 4 437 161, 2001.

L. Erdmann and D. Efferenn, "Technique for monolithic fabrication of silicon microlenses with selectable rim angles", Opt. Eng., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1094-1098, 1997.

A. Y. Feldblum, K. O. Mersereau, C. R. Nijander and W. P. Townsend, "Methods for making microlens arrays", U.S. Patent 5 286 338, Feb. 15, 1994.

C. Bolle, "Method for compensating for nonuniform etch profiles", U.S.s Patent 6 649 073, Nov. 18, 2003.

N. R. Basavanhally, R. E. Scotti and J. D. Weld, "Fiber array coupler", U.S. Patent 6 633 719, Oct. 14, 2003 .

R. Capik, J. Hickey and S. Korotky, "Insertion loss model and input/output losses of single-stage optical cross-connects", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2003), vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, 2003,Paper WM2,. pp. 386-387.

C. F. Lam, M. Boroditsky, B. Desai and N. J. Frigo, "A novel dynamic crosstalk characterization technique for 3-D photonic crossconnects", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 141-143, Jan. 2003 .

A. Olkhovets, P. Phanaphat, C. Nuzman, D. J. Shin, C. Lichtenwalner, M. Kozhevnikov and J. Kim, "Performance of an optical switch based on 3-D MEMS crossconnect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 780-782, Mar. 2004.

Y. Tze-Wei, K. L. E. Law and A. Goldenberg, "MEMS optical switches", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, pp. 158-163, Nov. 2001.

D. J. Bishop, C. R. Giles and G. P. Austin, "The Lucent LambdaRouter: MEMS technology of the future here today", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, pp. 75-79, Mar. 2002.

A. Neukermans and R. Ramaswami, "MEMS technology for optical networking applications", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, pp. 62-69, Jan. 2001.

E. Goldstein, L. Lin and J. A. Walker, "Lightwave micromachines for optical networks", Optics Photonics News , Mar. 2001.

D. T. Neilson, V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, K. S. Bhalla, D. J. Bishop, B. A. Boie, C. A. Bolle, J. V. Gates, A. M. Gottlieb, J. P. Hickey, N. A. Jackman, P. R. Kolodner, S. K. Korotky, B. Mikkelsen, F. Pardo, G. Raybon, R. Ruel, R. E. Scotti, T. W. VanBlarcum, L. Zhang and C. R. Giles, "Fully provisioned 112 × 112 micro-mechanical optical cross connect with 35.8 Tb/s demonstrated capacity", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2000), vol. 4, 2000, pp. 202-204.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage and O. Solgaard, "Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 882-884, July 2000.

A. Keating, "Optical MEMS in switching systems", in IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting 2001 Dig., San Diego, CA, Nov. 2001, pp. 8-9.

R. Ryf, J. Kim, J. P. Hickey, A. Gnauck, D. Carr, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, R. Frahm, N. Basavanhally, C. Yoh, D. Ramsey, R. Boie, R. George, J. Kraus, C. Lichtenwalner, R. Papazian, J. Gates, H. R. Shea, A. Gasparyan, V. Muratov, J. E. Griffith, J. A. Prybyla, S. Goyal, C. D. White, M. T. Lin, R. Ruel, C. Nijander, S. Arney, D. T. Neilson, D. J. Bishop, P. Kolodner, S. Pau, C. Nuzman, A. Weis, B. Kumar, D. Lieuwen, V. Aksyuk, D. S. Greywall, T. C. Lee, H. T. Soh, W. M. Mansfield, S. Jin, W. Y. Lai, H. A. Huggins, D. L. Barr, R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Bogart, K. Teffeau, R. Vella, H. Mavoori, A. Ramirez, N. A. Ciampa, F. P. Klemens, M. D. Morris, T. Boone, J. Q. Liu, J. M. Rosamilia and C. R. Giles, "1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 Petabit/s switch capacity", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC 2001), vol. 4, 2001, Paper PD28-P1-3.

J. Kim, J. V. Gates, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf and D. T. Neilson, "1100 × 1100-port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4 dB maximum loss", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1537 -1539, Nov. 2003.

O. Jerphagnon, R. Anderson, A. Chojitacki, R. Heikey, W. Fant, V. Kaman, A. Keating, B. Liu, C. Pusaria, J. R. Sechrist, D. Xu, S. Vuan and Z. Xuezhe, "Performance and applications of a large port-count and low-loss photonic cross-connect system for optical networks", in 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2002 (LEOS 2002), vol. 1, 2002, pp. 299-300.

J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm and J. V. Gates, "Performance of large scale MEMS-based optical crossconnect switches", in 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2002 (LEOS 2002), vol. 2, 2002, pp. 411-412.

A. Neukermans, "MEMS devices for all optical networks", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4561, 2001, pp. 1-10.

Y. Uenishi, J. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, N. Takeuchi, A. Shimizu, E. Higurashi and R. Sawada, "Free-space optical cross connect switch based on a 3D MEMS mirror array", in 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE.Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2002 (LEOS 2002), vol. 1, 2002, pp. 59-60.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, R. Ryf, H. Shea and M. E. Simon, "238 × 238 micromechanical optical crossconnect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 587-589, Apr. 2003.

M. C. Wu, D. Hah, P. R. Patterson and H. Toshiyoshi, "Microelectromechanical scanning devices for optical networking applications", in 2002 IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Tech. Dig. (ISSCC 2002) , vol. 1, 2002, pp. 358-359.

Y. Mizuno, O. Tsuboi, N. Kouma, H. Soneda, H. Okuda, Y. Nakamura, S. Ueda, I. Sawaki and F. Yamagishi, "A 2-axis comb-driven micromirror array for 3D MEMS switches", in 2002 IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMS Dig., Aug. 2002, pp. 17-18.

R. Sawada, J. Yamaguchi, E. Higurashi, A. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, N. Takeuchi and Y. Uenishi, "Single Si crystal 1024 ch MEMS mirror based on terraced electrodes and a high-aspect ratio torsion spring for 3-D cross-connect switch", in 2002 IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMS Dig. , Aug. 2002, pp. 11-12.

M.-H. Kiang, O. Solgaard and K. Y. Lau, "Electrostatic combdrive-actuated micromirrors for laser-beam scanning and positioning", J. Micromech. Syst., vol. 7, pp. 27-37, 1998.

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