Abstract

This paper proposes a new scheme of a tapered hyperbolic-end fiber (THEF) microlens for efficient coupling between laser diode and single-mode fiber. The THEFs were fabricated by symmetrically tapering the fiber during the etching process and hyperbolically lensing the tip during the fusing process. The hyperbolic microlenses of the THEFs have demonstrated up to 82% coupling efficiency for a laser with an aspect ratio of 1:1.5. The influence of tapering asymmetry on the coupling has also been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The axially symmetrical tapered microlenses of the THEFs showed far-field profiles well approximated by a Gaussian profile, while the asymmetric taper deviated significantly from a Gaussian profile. The coupling efficiency for both symmetrical and asymmetrical microlenses were calculated based on the Fresnel diffraction theory and the results were in good agreement with the measurements. This study makes it possible to fabricate the hyperbolic microlenses using unique etching and fusion techniques that result in a more than 2 dB improvement in coupling efficiency when compared to the currently available hemispherical microlenses.

© 2004 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

B. Hillerich and J. Guttmann, "Deterioration of taper lens performance due to taper asymmetry", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 99-104, Jan. 1989.

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 252-257, Feb. 1993 .

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. Bour and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1318-1313, Sept. 1990.

Other (14)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. : Oxford Univ. Press, 1996, pp. 52-53.

H. Kogelink, "Coupling and conversion coefficients for optical modes in quasioptics," in Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series, New York: New York Polytechnic Press, 1964,vol. 14, pp. 333-347.

"MicronViewer 7290A, Laser Beam Profiling", Electrophysics Corp., Fairfield, NJ,.

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 798-800, July 1995.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, San Francisco, CA: McGraw-Hill, 1968, ch. 4-5.

K. Mathyssek, J. Woittmann and R. Keil, "Fabrication and investigation of drawn fiber tapers with spherical microlenses", J. Opt. Commun., vol. 6, pp. 142-146, May 1985.

H. Izadpanah and L. A. Reith, "Microlens fabrication technique for an efficient laser/single-mode fiber coupling", SPIE, vol. 836, pp. 306-315, 1987.

H. M. Yang, D. C. Jou, M. H. Chen, S. H. Wu and W. H. Cheng, "An optimum approach for fabrication of tapered hemispherical-end fiber for laser module packaging", J. Electron. Mater. , vol. 30, pp. 271-274, Mar. 2001.

A. R. Mickelson, N. R. Basavanhally and Y. C. Lee, Optoelectronic Packaging, New York: Wiley, 1997, ch. 4.

S. Y. Huang, C. E. Gaebe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand and T. Stakelon, "High-coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 23, pp. 165-169, May 2000.

C. Lin, Optoelectronic Technology and Lightwave Communications Systems, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,vol. 989,ch. 7.

"Data Sheets", Lasertron, Inc., Bedford, MA, 2002.

"Data Sheets", SDL, Inc., San Jose, CA, 2002.

K. S. Mobarhan, S. Jang and R. Heyler, "Laser diode packaging technology: 980 nm EDFA pump lasers for telecommunication applications," in Application Note, Newport, CA: Newport Corp., 2002, pp. 1-7.

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