Abstract

This tutorial describes the transmission, group delay time and quadratic dispersion properties of the four basic building blocs of optical filters built using ring resonators. These building blocs are single-ring resonators in either two-port (all-pass) or four-port (add/drop filter) configuration. The effect of waveguide and coupler loss is included throughout. Explicit expressions to compute the complex amplitude of the circulating wave in the ring, the Q factor, the finesse and the insertion loss are also given. Attention is drawn to the similarities between the ring resonator the Fabry-Pérot resonator and the Gires-Tournois interferometer. Material properties and fabrication technology are not reviewed.

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J. Lightwave Technol. (18)

D. B. Mortimore, "Fiber loop reflectors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 1217-1224, July 1988.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, "A general planar waveguide autoregressive optical filter", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 437-447, Mar. 1996 .

K. Oda, N. Takato and H. Toba, "A wide-FSR waveguide double-ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 728-736, June 1991.

S. Suzuki, K. Oda and Y. Hibino, "Integrated-optic double-ring resonators with a wide free spectral range of 100 GHz", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1766-1771, Aug. 1995.

G. Barbarossa, A. M. Matteo and M. N. Armenise, "Theoretical analysis of triple-coupler ring-based optical guided-wave resonator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 148-157, Feb. 1995.

S. C. Hagness, D. Rafizadeh, S. T. Ho and A. Taflove, "FDTD microcavity simulations: Design and experimental realization of waveguide-coupled single-mode ring and whispering-gallery-mode disk resonators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 2154-2165, Nov. 1997 .

B. Vizoso, C. Vázquez, R. Civera, M. López-Amo and M. A. Muriel, "Amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay lines", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 294-305, Feb. 1994 .

E. M. Dowling and D. L. MacFarlane, "Lightwave lattice filters for optically multiplexed communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 471-486, Mar. 1994.

K. Jinguji, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1882-1898, Aug. 1996.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 998-1005, June 1997 .

O. Schwelb and I. Frigyes, "All-optical tunable filters built with discontinuity-assisted ring resonators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 380-386, Mar. 2001 .

C. K. Madsen, "General IIR optical filter design for WDM applications using all-pass filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 860-868, June 2000.

G. Lenz and C. K. Madsen, "General optical all-pass filter structures for dispersion control in WDM systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1248-1254, July 1999.

M. Jablonski, Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, "The realization of all-pass filters for third-order dispersion compensation in ultrafast optical fiber transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1194-1205, Aug. 2001 .

A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, "Synthesis of direct-coupled-resonators bandpass filters for WDM systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 296-303, Feb. 2002.

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 1968-1975, Nov. 2002 .

Y. H. Chew, T. T. Tjhung and F. V. C. Mendis, "An optical filter of adjustable finesse using an amplified fiber ring resonator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 364-370, Feb. 1997.

H. Okamura and K. Iwatsuki, "A finesse-enhanced Er-doped-fiber ring resonator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1554-1560, Nov. 1991.

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