Abstract

The polarization dependence of light coupling in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with sixfold symmetric dual cores and highly birefringent dual cores are numerically investigated. The characteristics of PCF-based couplers,such as coupling length, extinction ratio and form birefringence, are examined as functions of the air-hole size and pitch. The silica bridges between air holes take an important role in the energy transfer across the two cores. We believe that the mechanism of light coupling in PCF-based couplers is different from that of conventional waveguide couplers. The polarization dependent coupling can be reduced by adjusting the air holes around the cores of PCFs. On the other hand, the polarization dependent coupling can be enhanced by introducing high birefringence in the two cores.

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J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa and Y. Kokubun, "Arrow-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1165-1170, July 1997.

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava and R. V. Ramaswamy, "A 1.3-µ m directional coupler polarization splitter by ion exchange", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 220-225, Feb. 1993.

M. J. Messerly, J. R. Onstott and R. C. Mikkelson, "A broad-band single polarization optical fiber", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 817-820, July 1991.

M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood Jr., "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 495-503, Apr. 2001.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick and P. J. Bennett, "Modeling large air fraction holey optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 50-56, Jan. 2000.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1084-1100, Aug. 2000.

F. Fogli, G. Bellanca, P. Bassi, I. Madden and W. Johnstone, "Highly efficient full-vectorial 3D BPM modeling of fiber to planar waveguide couplers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 136-143, Jan. 1999.

C. H. Kwan and K. S. Chiang, "Study of polarization-dependent coupling in optical waveguide directional couplers by the effective-index method with built-in perturbation correction", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 1018-1026, June 2002.

Other (30)

A. W. Snyder, "Coupled-mode theory for optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1267-1277, Nov. 1972.

W. P. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: An overview", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 963-983, Mar. 1994.

L. Zhang and C. Yang, "Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1015-1020, May 2003.

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J. J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei and F. H. Groen, "A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 209 -211, Feb. 1997.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andre's and M. V. Andre's, "Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 276-278, Mar. 1999.

B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke and R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. Formulation", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2331-2340, Oct. 2002.

T. P. White, B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. M. de Sterke and L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. Implementation and results", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2322-2330, Oct. 2002.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux and P. Roy, "Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers by the finite element method", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 181-191, Feb. 2000.

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui and K. Yokoyama, "The perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition for the beam propagation method", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 649-651, May 1996.

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, "Numerical verification of degeneracy in hexagonal photonic crystal fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1313-1315, Feb. 2001.

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran and L. C. Botten, "Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2001.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks and P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers", Science , vol. 282, pp. 1476-1478, Nov. 1998.

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers: New ways to guide light", Science, vol. 296, pp. 276-277, Apr. 2002 .

D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi and K. Furusawa, "Holey fibers: New possibilities for guiding and manipulating light", in Proc. 2002 IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fiber and Optical Passive Components,, pp. 169-175.

A. Bjarklev, J. Riishede, S. E. B. Libori and J. Broen, "Photonic crystal fibers-Novel fibers, new applications", in Proc. 2002 4th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks , vol. 2, pp. 172-178.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air", Science, vol. 285, pp. 1537-1539, Sept. 1999.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett. , vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 961-963, July 1997.

P. St. J. Russell, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight and T. A. Birks, "Nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fiber: Opportunities and challenges", in Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, 1999, pp. 60-61.

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar and R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 1048-1050, July 2001.

A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 924-926, June 2002.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrashort pulse propagation in air-silica microstructure fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 10, no. 13, pp. 575-580, July 2002.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 807 -809, July 2000.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka and M. Fujita, "Optical properties of a low-loss polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 676 -670, July 2001.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 588-590, July 2001.

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell and A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1358-1359, Aug. 2000.

J. Canning, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen and K. Lyytikainen, "Complex mode coupling within air-silica structured optical fibers and applications", Opt. Commun., vol. 185, pp. 321-324, Nov. 2000.

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek and G.-H. Yang, "Photonic crystal fiber coupler", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 812-814, May 2002.

F. Fogli, L. Saccomandi, P. Bassi, G. Bellanca and S. Trillo, "Full vectorial BPM modeling of index-guiding photonic crystal fibers and couplers", Opt. Express, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 54-59, May 2002.

A. Ankiewicz, A. W. Snyder and X. H. Zheng, "Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores-Critical examination", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 1317-1323, Sept. 1986.

G. D. Peng, T. Tjugiarto and P. L. Chu, "Polarization beam splitting using twin-elliptic-core optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 682-683, May 1990.

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