Abstract

This paper develops a vector theory of cross-phase modulation (XPM) in optical fibers and use it to investigate the impact of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) on the crosstalk induced by XPM in wavelength-division multiplexed lightwave systems. Under certain reasonable approximations, the theory permits us to obtain an analytic expression for the amplitude of probe fluctuations induced by a copropagating pump channel through XPM. We use this expression to calculate the average level of XPM-induced crosstalk together with its variance for several dispersion maps. We show that PMD not only reduces the crosstalk on average, but also impacts the efficiency of a commonly used polarization-interleaving technique.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic and L. G. Kazovsky, "Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 249-260, 1996.

S. G. Evangelides Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 28-35, 1992.

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 148-157, 1996.

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk and P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1735-1746, 1997.

F. S. Yang, M. E. Marhic and L. G. Kazovsky, "Nonlinear crosstalk and two countermeasures in SCM-WDM optical communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 512-520, 2000.

A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 178-190, 1999.

R. Hui, K. R. Demarest and C. T. Allen, "Cross-phase modulation in multispan WDM optical fiber systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1018-1026, 1999.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (19)

C. R. Menyuk, "Application of multiple-length-scale methods to the study of optical fiber transmission", J. Eng. Math., vol. 36, pp. 113-136, 1999.

C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Methods, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 1985.

C. R. Menyuk, D. Wang and A. N. Pilipetskii, "Repolarization of polarization-scrambled optical signals due to polarization dependent loss", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1247-1249, 1997.

G. Bellotti, A. Bertaina and S. Bigo, "Dependence of self-phase modulation impairments on residual dispersion in 10-Gb/s-based terrestrial transmissions using standard fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 824 -826, 1999.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2003.

M. Shtaif and M. Eiselt, "Analysis of intensity interference caused by cross-phase modulation in dispersive optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 979-981, July 1998.

R. Hui, Y. Wang, K. Demarest and C. Allen, "Frequency response of cross-phase modulation in multispan WDM optical fiber systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1271-1273, Sept. 1998.

A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Impact of modulation frequency on cross-phase modulation effect in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1268 -1270, Sept. 1998.

G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia and A. Bononi, "Intensity distribution induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical-fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1745-1747, Dec. 1998.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001.

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti and M. W. Chbat, "Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitation over various types of fiber infrastructures", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 605-607, May 1999.

M. Shtaif, M. Eiselt and L. D. Garrett, "Cross-phase modulation distortion measurement in multispan WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol. 12, pp. 88-90, Jan. 2000.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov and P. Bayvel, "Prediction of transmission penalties due to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems using a simplified technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 804-806, July 2000 .

S. Betti and M. Giaconi, "Effect of the cross-phase modulation on WDM optical systems: Analysis of fiber propagation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 305-307, Apr. 2001.

S. Betti and M. Giaconi, "Analysis of the cross-phase modulation in dispersion compensated WDM optical fiber systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1304-1306, Dec. 2001.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2002.

L. Rapp, "Experimental investigation of signal distortions induced by cross-phase modulation combined with dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1592-1594, Dec. 1997.

H. J. Thiele, R. I. Killey and P. Bayvel, "Investigation of cross-phase modulation-induced transmission penalties using the pump-probe technique", Opt. Fiber Technol. , vol. 8, pp. 71-81, 2002.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 97, 2000, pp. 4541-4550.

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