Abstract

System performance of optical fiber transmission in the presence of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) can be improved by various types of electronic equalizers, which will be discussed in this paper. After a brief review of equalization and detection theory, equalizer concepts are adapted to the nonlinear optical channel and the architecture is optimized for high bit rate applications. Simulation results accounting for implementation losses in state-of-the-art technologies and realistic transmission conditions indicate that these concepts provide adequate solutions for equalization in lightwave transmission systems.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1576-1582, Nov. 1991.

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser and W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified RZ and NRZ receivers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1263-1273, Sept. 2001.

Other (32)

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. LingleJr., Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri and S. Namiki, "6.4 Tb/s (160 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32 × 100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003, pp. PD19-1-PD19-3.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjeld, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin and P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100 km UltraWave^TM fiber spans", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003, pp. PD18-1-PD18-3.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert and H. Bülow, "Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, pp. TuP5-1-TuP5-3.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.

S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri and V. Castellani, Digital Transmission Theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987.

R. D. Gittlin, J. F. Hayes and S. B. Weinstein, Data Communications Principles, New York: Plenum, 1992.

H. Dawid, G. Fettweis and H. Meyr, "A CMOS IC for GB/s viterbi decoding: System design and VLSI implementation", IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Syst., vol. 4, pp. 17-31, Mar. 1996.

J. H. Winters and R. D. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, pp. 1439-1453, Sept. 1990.

H. Bülow, R. Ballentin, W. Baumert, G. Maisonneuve, G. Thielecke and T. Wehren, "Adaptive PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using an electronic SiGe equaliser IC", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Nice, France, 1999, pp. 138-139.

L. Möller, A. Thiede, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Benz, M. Lang, T. Jakobus and M. Schlechtweg, "ISI mitigation using decision feedback loop demonstated with PMD distorted 10 Gbit/s signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 2092-2093, 1999.

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin and S. Kasturia, "Reducing the effects of transmission impairments in digital fiber optic systems", IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 68-76, June 1993.

J. Poirrier, A. Gnauck and J. H. Winters, "Experimental nonlinear cancellation of polarization-mode dispersion", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., vol. 3, Baltimore, MD, 2000, pp. 119-121.

W. Sauer-Greff, M. Lorang, H. Haunstein and R. Urbansky, "Modified volterra series and state model approach for nonlinear data channels", in Proc. IEEE Signal Processing'99, Poznan, Poland, 1999, pp. 19-23.

C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, "Polarization effects in lightwave systems," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, I. P. Kaminow, and T. L. Koch, Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1997, pp. 114-161.

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev and V. Ivshin, "Transmission of 40 × 42.7 Gbit/s over 5200 km UltraWave^TM fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002 .

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers , New York: Wiley, 1994.

M. Schaetzen, The Volterra and Wiener Series Theories of Nonlinear Systems, New York: Wiley, 1980 .

H. Haunstein, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Design of near optimum electrical equalizers for optical transmission in the presence of PMD", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. WAA4-1-WAA4-3.

H. F. Haunstein, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, M. Lorang, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Implementation of near optimum electrical equalization at 10 Gbit/s", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication , vol. 3, Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 223-224.

K. Sticht, H. F. Haunstein, M. Lorang, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Adaptation of electronic PMD equaliser based on BER estimation derived from FEC decoder", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 3, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, pp. 454-455.

S. Kasturia and J. H. Winters, "Techniques for high-speed implementation of nonlinear cancellation", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 9, pp. 711-717, June 1991.

H. Bülow, W. Baumert, F. Buchali and W. Kuebart, "Adaptation of an electronic PMD mitgator by maximation of the eye opening", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 3, Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 209-210.

H. F. Haunstein, K. Sticht, R. Schlenk, W. Sauer-Greff, M. Lorang, A. Dittrich and R. Urbansky, "Control of 3-tap electrical feed-forward equalizer by conditional error counts from FEC in the presence of PMD", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 307-308.

H. F. Haunstein, R. Schlenk, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Control of combined electrical feed-forward and decision feedback equalization by conditional error counts from FEC in the presence of PMD", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. 474- 476.

P. Robertson, E. Villebrun and P. Hoeher, "A comparison of optimal and suboptimal MAP decoding algorithms operating in the log domain", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, Seattle, WA, 1995, pp. 1009-1013.

M. Siegrist, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Iterative equalization for nonlinear channels with intersymbol interference", in Proc. IEEE Signal Processing 2001 Workshop, Poznan, Poland, 2001, pp. 95-98.

M. Tuechler, R. Koetter and A. Singer, "Turbo equalization: Principles and new results", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-50, pp. 754-767, May 2002 .

G. J. Foschini, R. D. Gittlin and S. B. Weinstein, "Optimum detection of quantized PAM data signals", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-24, pp. 1301-1309, Dec. 1976.

S. P. Lloyd, "Least squares quantization in PCM", IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-28, pp. 129-137, Mar. 1982.

H. Bülow, "PMD mitigation techniques and their effectiveness in installed fiber", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf., vol. 3, Baltimore, MD, 2000, pp. 110-112.

G. L. Frazer, M. W. Goodwin, K. E. Leonard, J. P. Moffatt and F. Zhang, "Static and dynamic performance of an adaptive receiver for 10 Gbps optical transmission", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication , vol. 2, Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 113-114.

B. Razavi, "Challenges in the design of high-speed clock and data recovery circuits", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, pp. 94-101, Aug. 2002.

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