Abstract

This paper presents a method that allows evaluating the performance of an optical fiber system where bit errors result from a complex interplay of spontaneous noise generated in optical amplifiers and birefringent disorder of the transmission fiber. We demonstrate that in the presence of temporal fluctuations of birefringence characteristics, the bit-error rate (BER) itself is insufficient for characterizing system performance. Adequate characterization requires introducing the probability distribution function (PDF) of the BER obtained by averaging over many realizations of birefringent disorder. Our theoretical analysis shows that this PDF has an extended tail indicating the importance of anomalously large values of BER. We present the results of comprehensive analysis of the following issues: 1) The dependence of the PDF tail shape on detection details, such as filtering and regular temporal shift adjustment; 2) the changes in the PDF of BER that occur when the first-or higher order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation techniques are applied; 3) an alternative PMD compensation method capable of providing more efficient suppression of extreme outages.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 1185-1190, July 1988 .

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optics Express (1)

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik and J. P. Gordon, "Measurement of polarization mode dispersion vectors using the polarization-dependent signal delay method", Optics Express, vol. 6, pp. 158-167, 2000.

Other (28)

T. Ono, S. Yamazaki, H. Shimizu and H. Emura, "Polarization control method for suppressing polarization mode dispersion influence in optical-transmission systems", J. Lightware Technol., vol. 12, pp. 891-898, May 1994.

L. Moller and H. Kogelnik, "PMD emulator restricted to first and second order PMD generation", in Proc. ECOC 1999, 1999, pp. 64-65.

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 163-164, 2000.

V. Chernyak, M. Chertkov, I. Kolokolov and V. Lebedev, "Probability of anomalously large bit-error-rate in long haul optical transmission", Phys. Rev. Lett. E, vol. 68, pp. 066619-066622, 2003 .

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1029-1030, 1986.

S. C. Rashleigh and R. Ulrich, "Polarization mode dispersion in single-mode fibers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 3, pp. 60-63, 1978.

S. Machida, I. Sakai and T. Kimura, "Polarization conservation in single-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, p. 494, 1981.

N. S. Bergano, C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, "Investigation of polarization dispersion in long lengths of single-mode fiber using multilongitudinal mode lasers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, pp. 1618-1622, Nov. 1987 .

G. Biondini, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Importance sampling for polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 310-312, Mar. 2002.

C. D. Poole and J. A. Nagel, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, and T. L. Koch, Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1997,vol. IIIA, p. 114.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Pendlock and A. H. Gnauck, "Polarization mode dispersion impairment in return to zero and nonreturn-to zero systems", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OFC 1999, 1999, paper WE3.

F. Heismann, D. Fishman and D. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization-mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in Proc. ECOC 1998, 1998, pp. 529-530.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", Proc. Nat. Acad. Science USA, vol. 97, pp. 4541-4550, 2000.

N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid and R. Passy, "How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1671-1673, Dec. 1996.

Chernyak, M. Chertkov, I. Kolokolov and V. Lebedev, "Compensation for extreme outages caused by polarization mode dispersion and amplifier noise", Opt. Express, vol. 11, p. 1607, 2003.

V. Chernyak, M. Chertkov, I. Kolokolov and V. Lebedev, "Periodic and quasiperiodic compensation strategies of extreme outages caused by polarization mode dispersion and amplifier noise", Pis'ma v ZhETF, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 234-237, 2003.

C. D. Poole, J. H. Winters and J. A. Nagel, "Opt. Lett.", vol. 16, pp. 372-374, 1991.

H. Bülow, "System outage probability due to first-and second-order PMD", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 696-698, May 1998.

I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers", IEEE J. Quant. Electron., vol. QE-17, pp. 15-22, Jan. 1981 .

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, New York: Academic, 1989.

A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gorkov and A. I. Dzyaloshinski, Methods of Quantum Field Theory in Statistical Physics , New York: Dover, 1977.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, New York: Wiley, 1994.

W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, New York: Wiley, 1957.

P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 1965.

V. N. Popov, Functional Integrals in Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics, Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 2001.

B. Huttner, B. Gisin and N. Gisin, "Distributed PMD measurement with a polarization-OTDR in optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 17, pp. 1843-1848, Oct. 1999.

C. Xie, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Polarization-mode dispersion-induced outages in soliton transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1079-1081, Oct. 2001.

U. Neukirch, M. Hempstead, G. Piech, Y. Mauro, M. Mlejnek, M. J. Soulliere, M. Webb, D. Pikula, R. Hoyt, M. Anderegg, M. Dailey, F. Wang and C. Drewnowski, "Time resolved performance analysis of a second-order PMD compensator", J. Lightware Technol., vol. 22, pp. 0000-0000, Apr. 2003.

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