Abstract

Adaptive polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation in 10 and 40 Gb/s transmission systems might become necessary if the link PMD causes strong signal distortions, which results in an unacceptable high system outage. The application of PMD compensation has the potential to lead to a drastic improvement of system robustness. Optical and electrical compensators will be reported, their operation principle explained, and their benefits will be quantified. The discussion is focused on the most important structures for practical system application including adaptive feedback loops. Experimental investigations proof compensator concepts which performance conforms with simulations. The electronical feed forward equalizer and the decision feedback equalizer are assessed in comparison to the optical simple and the two-stage compensator and the differences in performance are discussed for statistical PMD limited systems.

© 2004 IEEE

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  2. C. Francia, F. Bruyere, J.-P. Thiery and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 414-415, 1999.
  3. F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in Proc. ECOC, Madrid, Spain, pp. 529- 530.
  4. F. Roy, et al. "A simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC/IOOC'99, 1999, TuS4.
  5. J. Rasmussen, "Automatic PMD compensation at 43 Gb/s utilizing an accurate DOP monitor", in Tech. Dig. ECOC 2002,, 11.1.4.
  6. M. Shtaif, A. Mecozzi, M. Tur and J. Nagel, "A compensator for the effects of high-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 434-436, Apr. 2000.
  7. M. Sharma, H. Ibe and T. Ozeki, "Optical circuits for equalizing group delay dispersion of optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1759-1765, Oct. 1994.
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  9. T. Kudou, M. Iguchi and T. Ozeki, "Theoretical basis of polarization mode dispersion equalization up to the second order", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 18, pp. 614-617, Apr. 2000.
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  12. L. Möller, A. Thiede, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Benz, M. Lang, T. Jakobus and M. Schlechtweg, "ISI mitigation using decision feedback loop demonstrated with PMD distorted 10 Gbit/s signals", Eleetron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 2092-2093, 1999.
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  14. H. Bülow, et al. "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. Tech. Dig. ECOC 1998,, p. 4.
  15. H. Bülow and G. Veith, "Temporal dynamics of error-rate degradation induced by polarization mode dispersion fluctuation of a field fiber link", in Proc. ECOC 97, vol. 1, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 115-118.
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  17. Schüppen, S. H. Dietrich, U. Seiler, H. v. d. Ropp and U. Erben, "A SiGe RF technology for mobile communication systems", Microwave Eng. Europe, pp. 39-46, 1998.
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  19. H. Bülow, R. Ballentin, W. Baumert, G. Maisonneuve, G. Thielecke and T. Wehren, "Adaptive PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using an electronic SiGe equaliser IC", in Proc. ECOC'99 , Nice, France,Sept. 26-30 1999,We C3.4.
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  22. G. Kanter, P. Chappofreddi, S. Behtash and A. Gandhi, "Electronic equalization for extending the reach of electro-absorption modulator based transponder", in Proc. OFC , Atlanta, MD, 2003, pp. 476-477.
  23. S. Otte and W. Rosenkranz, "Performance of electronic compensator for chromatic dispersion & SPM", in Proc. ECOC 2000, Munich, Germany,Sept. 3-7 2000,3.2.4.
  24. S. Otte and W. Rosenkranz, "Electrical dispersion compensation for 10 Gbit/s transmission systems: Simulation", in 2nd Working-Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Rome, Feb. 9-11 1998.
  25. S. Kasturia and J. H. Winters, "Techniques for high-speed implementation of nonlinear cancellation", J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 9, pp. 711-717, Oct. 1991.
  26. B. Wedding, W. Kuebart, A. Chiarotto and H. Bülow, "Fast adaptive control for electronic equalization of PMD", in Proc. OFC 2001,, TuP4.
  27. F. Buchali, H. Bülow and W. Kuebart, "Adaptive decision feedback equalization for 10 Gb/s dispersion mitigation", in Proc. ECOC 2000, Munich, Germany,Sept. 3-7 2000,5.2.5.
  28. H. Bülow, "Electronic equalization of transmission impairments", in Techn. Dig. OFC 2002,, TuE4.TuP3-2.
  29. H. Bülow, W. Baumert, F. Buchali and W. Kuebart, "Adaptation of an electronic PMD mitigator by maximization of the eye opening", in Proc. ECOC 2000, Munich, Germany,Sept. 3-7 2000, P3.10.
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  31. H. Haunstein, R. Schlenk, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Control of combined electrical feed forward and decision feedback equalization by conditional error counts from FEC in the presence of PMD", in Proc. OFC, Atlanta, GA, 2003, ThG5,. pp. 474-476.
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  35. H. Rosenfeldt, et al. "Feed forward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gb/s over 45 km installed SMF", in Proc. ECOC 2001,, PD.B.1.1.
  36. F. Buchali, et al. "Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", in Proc. OFC 2001,, TuP5.
  37. F. Buchali, et al. "A 40 Gb/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC 2002,, We6.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. H. Winters and S. Kasturia, "Adaptive nonlinear cancellation for high-speed fiber-optic systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 971-977, July 1992.

H. Sunnerud, et al. "A comparison between different PMD compensation techniques", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 368-378, 2002.

M. Sharma, H. Ibe and T. Ozeki, "Optical circuits for equalizing group delay dispersion of optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1759-1765, Oct. 1994.

Other (49)

S. Lanne, et al. "Demonstration of adaptive PMD compensation at 40 Gb/s", in Tech. Dig. OFC 2001,, TuP3.

T. Kudou, M. Iguchi and T. Ozeki, "Theoretical basis of polarization mode dispersion equalization up to the second order", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 18, pp. 614-617, Apr. 2000.

C. D. Poole, et al. "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 68-70, 1991.

C. Francia, F. Bruyere, J.-P. Thiery and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 414-415, 1999.

F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in Proc. ECOC, Madrid, Spain, pp. 529- 530.

F. Roy, et al. "A simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC/IOOC'99, 1999, TuS4.

J. Rasmussen, "Automatic PMD compensation at 43 Gb/s utilizing an accurate DOP monitor", in Tech. Dig. ECOC 2002,, 11.1.4.

M. Shtaif, A. Mecozzi, M. Tur and J. Nagel, "A compensator for the effects of high-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 434-436, Apr. 2000.

D. Penninckxs and S. Lanne, "Ultimate limits of optical polarization mode dispersion compensators", in Proc. ECOC 2000, vol. 3, Munich, Germany, pp. 205-206.

Q. Yu and A. E. Willner, "Performance limits of first order PMD compensators using fixed and variable DGD elements", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 304-306, 2002.

H. Rosenfeldt, et al. "Feed forward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gb/s over 45 km installed SMF", in Proc. ECOC 2001,, PD.B.1.1.

F. Buchali, et al. "Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", in Proc. OFC 2001,, TuP5.

F. Buchali, et al. "A 40 Gb/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC 2002,, We6.

R. Wiesmann, O. Bleck and H. Heppner, "Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC'00, Baltimore, MD, Mar. 7-10 2000, pp. 171-173.

J. Poirrier, et al. "Optical PMD compensation performance: Numerical assessment", in Techn. Dig. OFC 2002 ,.

H. Bülow and S. Lanne, "Optical and electronic PMD compensation", in Tutorial OFC 2003, Tech. Dig. OFC 2003,,ThP1,. pp. 175-200.

H. Bülow, "Polarization Mode Dispersion Mitigation," in Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, J. Proakis, Ed. New York: Wiley, 2002.

R. D. Gitlin, J. F. Hayes and S. B. Weinstein, Data Communication Principles, New York: Plenium, 1992.

H. F. Haunstein, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Design of near optimum electrical equalizer for optical transmission in the presence of PMD", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 10-21 2001, WAA4.

R. Noé, D. Sandel, S. Hinz, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, V. Mirvoda, G. Feise, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, F. Wehrmann, C. Glingener, A. Schöpflin, A. Färbert and G. Fischer, "Integrated optical LiNbO3 distributed polarization mode dispersion compensator in 20 Gbit/s transmission systm", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 652-954, 1999.

C. Glingener, A. Schöpflin, A. Färbert, G. Fischer, R. Noé, D. Sandel, S. Hinz, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, V. Mirvoda, G. Feise, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, W. Sohler and F. Wehrmann, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 20 Gb/s with a compact distributed equalizer in LiNbO3", in Proc. OFC, San Diego, CA, 1999, PD29.

L. Möller, "Broadband PMD compensation in WDM systems", in Proc. ECOC 2000,, P1-5,. pp. 159-160.

C. K. Madsen and P. Oswald, "Optical filter architecture for approximating any 2 × 2 unitary matrix", Opt. Lett. , vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 534-536, Apr. 2003.

A. Eyal, D. Kuperman, O. Dimenstein and M. Tur, "Polarization dependence of the intensity modulation transfer function of an optical system with PMD and PDL", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1515-1517, 2002.

C. K. Madsen, et al. "An integrated wavelength sensitive polarimeter", in Proc. ECOC 2002, Kopenhagen, Denmark,1.2.5.

A. O. Lima, T. Adali, I. T. Lima Jr. and C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization diversity receiver for PMD mitigation", in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2002,WI7,. p. 241 242.

H. Bülow, "PMD mitigation techniques and their effectiveness in installed fiber", in Tech. Dig. OFC 2000, Baltimore, Maryland,ThH1.

H. Bülow, "Self-stabilizing continuously tunable group delay line for PMD compensation", in Proc. ECOC 2003, Copenhagen, Sweden,9.3.5.

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 163-164, 2000.

L. Möller, A. Thiede, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Benz, M. Lang, T. Jakobus and M. Schlechtweg, "ISI mitigation using decision feedback loop demonstrated with PMD distorted 10 Gbit/s signals", Eleetron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 2092-2093, 1999.

F. Bruyere, "Impact of first and second-order PMD in optical digital transmission systems", Optical Fiber Technol., no. 2, pp. 269-280, 1996.

H. Bülow, et al. "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. Tech. Dig. ECOC 1998,, p. 4.

H. Bülow and G. Veith, "Temporal dynamics of error-rate degradation induced by polarization mode dispersion fluctuation of a field fiber link", in Proc. ECOC 97, vol. 1, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 115-118.

J. Proakis, Digital Communications , New York: McGraw Hill, pp. 649-650.

Schüppen, S. H. Dietrich, U. Seiler, H. v. d. Ropp and U. Erben, "A SiGe RF technology for mobile communication systems", Microwave Eng. Europe, pp. 39-46, 1998.

H. Bülow and G. Thielecke, "Electronic PMD mitigation -From linear equalization to maximum likelihood detection", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC'2001, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 10-21 2001, WAA3.

H. Bülow, R. Ballentin, W. Baumert, G. Maisonneuve, G. Thielecke and T. Wehren, "Adaptive PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using an electronic SiGe equaliser IC", in Proc. ECOC'99 , Nice, France,Sept. 26-30 1999,We C3.4.

J. H. Winters and R. D. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, pp. 1439-1453, Sept. 1990 .

J. Poirrier, A. Gnauck and J. Winters, "Experimental nonlinear cancellation of polarization-mode dispersion", in Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC'00 , Baltimore, MD, Mar. 7-10 2000,ThH4,. pp. 119-121.

G. Kanter, P. Chappofreddi, S. Behtash and A. Gandhi, "Electronic equalization for extending the reach of electro-absorption modulator based transponder", in Proc. OFC , Atlanta, MD, 2003, pp. 476-477.

S. Otte and W. Rosenkranz, "Performance of electronic compensator for chromatic dispersion & SPM", in Proc. ECOC 2000, Munich, Germany,Sept. 3-7 2000,3.2.4.

S. Otte and W. Rosenkranz, "Electrical dispersion compensation for 10 Gbit/s transmission systems: Simulation", in 2nd Working-Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Rome, Feb. 9-11 1998.

S. Kasturia and J. H. Winters, "Techniques for high-speed implementation of nonlinear cancellation", J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 9, pp. 711-717, Oct. 1991.

B. Wedding, W. Kuebart, A. Chiarotto and H. Bülow, "Fast adaptive control for electronic equalization of PMD", in Proc. OFC 2001,, TuP4.

F. Buchali, H. Bülow and W. Kuebart, "Adaptive decision feedback equalization for 10 Gb/s dispersion mitigation", in Proc. ECOC 2000, Munich, Germany,Sept. 3-7 2000,5.2.5.

H. Bülow, "Electronic equalization of transmission impairments", in Techn. Dig. OFC 2002,, TuE4.TuP3-2.

H. Bülow, W. Baumert, F. Buchali and W. Kuebart, "Adaptation of an electronic PMD mitigator by maximization of the eye opening", in Proc. ECOC 2000, Munich, Germany,Sept. 3-7 2000, P3.10.

M. Frigolent, et al. "Adaptive optical receiver for performance monitoring and electronic mitigation of transmission impairments", in Proc. Tech. Dig. ECOC 2000,, p. 2.1.

H. Haunstein, R. Schlenk, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff and R. Urbansky, "Control of combined electrical feed forward and decision feedback equalization by conditional error counts from FEC in the presence of PMD", in Proc. OFC, Atlanta, GA, 2003, ThG5,. pp. 474-476.

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