Abstract

We propose and demonstrate two novel techniques for 10 Gb/s polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) monitoring for NRZ signals that use a regenerated RF clock tone as a monitoring signal. Our techniques regenerate the RF clock tone that is usually absent after square-law detection in the electrical NRZ data spectrum (in the absence of dispersion). Our first technique uses a dispersive element in the monitoring tap-line to put the beat terms between the optical clock sidebands and the carrier in phase and thus regenerates the RF clock tone after detection. Our second technique involves the use of an optical filter that is centered at the bit rate frequency on either the upper or lower sideband of the optical spectrum, removing one of the sidebands and thus preventing the beating that normally cancels the RF clock tone. We show (theoretically,via simulation, and experimentally) the effect that PMD has on these regenerated RF clock tones. We also demonstrate PMD compensation at 10 Gb/s using these techniques for monitoring and show a 6-dB improvement in the 1% power penalty tail. Our techniques are simple, do not require modification at the transmitter,and can be applied to WDM systems via the use of a multichannel dispersive element or a tunable filter swept across all channels.

© 2004 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, A. J. Stentz, T. N. Nielsen, D. W. Peckham, L. Hsu, L. Gruner-Nielsen, K. Dreyer and J. E. Johnson, "320 Gbit/s single-channel pseudolinear transmission over 200 km of nonzero-dispersion fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1400-1402, Oct. 2000.
  2. H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers and W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 83-85.
  3. H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Feedforward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gbit/s over 45 km installed single mode fiber", in Europ. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) 2001, vol. 6, 2001, pp. 68-69.
  4. P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Demonstration of a feed-forward PMD compensation technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 161 -163, 2002.
  5. P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 568-570, 2001.
  6. H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s and 80 Gbit/s using a 3-dimensional DOP evaluation for feedback", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2001, vol. 4, 2001, pp. PD27-1-PD27-3.
  7. M. W. Chbat, J.-P. Soignb, T. Fuerst, J. T. Anthony, S. Lanne, H. Fevrier, B. M. Desthieux, A. H. Bush and D. Penninckx, "Long term field demonstration of optical PMD compensation on an installed OC-192 link", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, 1999, pp. PD12/1-PD12/3.
  8. F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert and H. Bulow, "Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2001, vol. 2, 2001, pp. TuP5-1- TuP5-3.
  9. F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gbit/s transmission system", in Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) 1998, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 529-530.
  10. F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 1, 1999, pp. 275-278.
  11. S. Lanne, W. Idler, J.-P. Thiery and J.-P. Hamaide, "Fully automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 40-41, 2002.
  12. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L.-S. Yan, J. E. McGeehan, Y. Q. Shi, A. E. Willner and S. Yao, "Wide-dynamic-range DGD monitoring by partial optical signal spectrum DOP measurement", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 924-926.
  13. T. Takahashi, T. Imai and M. Aiki, "Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 348-349, 1994.
  14. G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, "Polarization-mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10-Gbit/s NRZ transmission experiments", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 1998, 1998, pp. 117-119.
  15. R. Noe, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Gungener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gbit/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1602-1616, 1999.
  16. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.-W. Song, A. B. Sahin, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring in WDM systems for NRZ data using a chromatic-dispersion-regenerated clock", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 200-202.
  17. H. Y. Pua, K. Peddanarappagari, B. Zhu, C. Allen, K. Demarest and R. Hui, "An adaptive first-order polarization-mode dispersion compensation system aided by polarization scrambling: theory and demonstration", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 832-841, 2000.
  18. F. Buchali, W. Baumert, H. Bulow and J. Poirrier, "A 40 Gbit/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 202- 203.
  19. B. W. Hakki, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 121-123, 1997.
  20. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee and A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones", in Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001, 2001, pp. 561- 563.
  21. R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wust and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 20, pp. 229-235, 2002.
  22. R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Pendock and A. H. Gnauck, "Polarization-mode dispersion impairment in return-to-zero and nonreturn-to-zero systems", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 80-82.
  23. Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2001, vol. 3, 2001, pp. WH5-1- WH5-3.
  24. G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, "Demonstration of automatic dispersion equalization in 40 Gbit/s OTDM transmission", in Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) 1998, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 519- 520.
  25. I. T. Lima Jr., R. Khosravani, P. Ebrahimi, E. Ibragimov, C. R. Menyuk and A. E. Willner, "Comparison of polarization mode dispersion emulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1872-1881, 2001.
  26. M. C. Hauer, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, E. R. Lyons, C. H. Lin, A. A. Au and H. P. Lee, "Compact, all-fiber PMD emulator using an integrated series of thin-film micro-heaters", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 374-375.
  27. N. Kikuchi, "Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 480-486, 2001.
  28. A. Bononi, A. Vannucci, A. Orlandini, E. Corbel, S. Lanne and S. Bigo, "Degree of polarization degradation due to cross-phase modulation and its impact on polarization-mode dispersion compensators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 1903-1913, 2003.
  29. F. Ramos and J. Marti, "Frequency transfer function of dispersive and nonlinear single-mode optical fibers in microwave optical systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 549-551, May 2000.

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Other (24)

F. Ramos and J. Marti, "Frequency transfer function of dispersive and nonlinear single-mode optical fibers in microwave optical systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 549-551, May 2000.

M. C. Hauer, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, E. R. Lyons, C. H. Lin, A. A. Au and H. P. Lee, "Compact, all-fiber PMD emulator using an integrated series of thin-film micro-heaters", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 374-375.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.-W. Song, A. B. Sahin, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring in WDM systems for NRZ data using a chromatic-dispersion-regenerated clock", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 200-202.

F. Buchali, W. Baumert, H. Bulow and J. Poirrier, "A 40 Gbit/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 202- 203.

B. W. Hakki, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 121-123, 1997.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee and A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones", in Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001, 2001, pp. 561- 563.

R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wust and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 20, pp. 229-235, 2002.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Pendock and A. H. Gnauck, "Polarization-mode dispersion impairment in return-to-zero and nonreturn-to-zero systems", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 80-82.

Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2001, vol. 3, 2001, pp. WH5-1- WH5-3.

G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, "Demonstration of automatic dispersion equalization in 40 Gbit/s OTDM transmission", in Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) 1998, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 519- 520.

B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, A. J. Stentz, T. N. Nielsen, D. W. Peckham, L. Hsu, L. Gruner-Nielsen, K. Dreyer and J. E. Johnson, "320 Gbit/s single-channel pseudolinear transmission over 200 km of nonzero-dispersion fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1400-1402, Oct. 2000.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers and W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 83-85.

H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Feedforward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gbit/s over 45 km installed single mode fiber", in Europ. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) 2001, vol. 6, 2001, pp. 68-69.

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Demonstration of a feed-forward PMD compensation technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 161 -163, 2002.

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 568-570, 2001.

H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s and 80 Gbit/s using a 3-dimensional DOP evaluation for feedback", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2001, vol. 4, 2001, pp. PD27-1-PD27-3.

M. W. Chbat, J.-P. Soignb, T. Fuerst, J. T. Anthony, S. Lanne, H. Fevrier, B. M. Desthieux, A. H. Bush and D. Penninckx, "Long term field demonstration of optical PMD compensation on an installed OC-192 link", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, 1999, pp. PD12/1-PD12/3.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert and H. Bulow, "Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2001, vol. 2, 2001, pp. TuP5-1- TuP5-3.

F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gbit/s transmission system", in Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) 1998, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 529-530.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 1, 1999, pp. 275-278.

S. Lanne, W. Idler, J.-P. Thiery and J.-P. Hamaide, "Fully automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 40-41, 2002.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L.-S. Yan, J. E. McGeehan, Y. Q. Shi, A. E. Willner and S. Yao, "Wide-dynamic-range DGD monitoring by partial optical signal spectrum DOP measurement", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 924-926.

T. Takahashi, T. Imai and M. Aiki, "Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 348-349, 1994.

G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, "Polarization-mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10-Gbit/s NRZ transmission experiments", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC) 1998, 1998, pp. 117-119.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.