Abstract

Fibers with low polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) enable high-bit-rate time-division-multiplexed optical communication systems. These fibers are becoming increasingly important with the growing implementation of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission with channel bit rates of 40 Gb/s. Important to the realization of low PMD fibers are the fiber's index and stress profiles, polarization-mode coupling, and the evolution of the polarization state with length. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of the fabrication and characteristics of these fibers. The paper also discusses the important fiber physical parameters,including the fiber index profile and fiber spinning parameters and their impacts on the realization of low PMD performance.

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Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

F. Curti, B. Daino, G. D. Marchis and F. Matera, "Statistical treatment of the evolution of the principal states of polarization in single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1162-1166, Aug. 1990.

M. Fontaine, B. Wu, V. P. Tzolov, W. J. Bock and W. Ubranczyk, "Theoretical and experimental analysis of thermal stress effects on modal polarization properties of highly birefringent optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 585-591, Apr. 1996.

G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization dispersion in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1439-1456, Nov. 1991.

N. Gisin, J.-P. Von der Weid and J.-P. Pellaux, "Polarization mode dispersion of short and long single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 821-827, July 1991.

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (21)

R. E. Schuh, E. S. R. Sikora, N. G. Walker, A. S. Siddiqui, L. M. Gleeson and D. H. O. Bebbington, "Theoretical analysis and measurement of effects of fiber twist on polarization mode dispersion of optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1772-1773, 1995.

M. J. Li, A. F. Evans, D. W. Allen and D. A. Nolan, "Effects of lateral load and external twist on polarization-mode dispersion of spun and unspun fibers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 24, p. 1325, 1999.

X. Chen, M.-J. Li and D. A. Nolan, "Scaling properties of polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers in the presence of random mode coupling", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, p. 1595, 2002.

A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, A. Pizzinat and L. Palmieri, "Calculation of the mean differential group delay of periodically spun, randomly birefringent fibers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 27, pp. 692-694, 2002.

A. Pizzinat, B. S. Marks, L. Palmieri, C. R. Menyuk and A. Galtarossa, "Polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers with randomly varying birefringence", Opt. Let., vol. 28, pp. 390-392, 2003.

D. Sarchi and G. Roba, "PMD mitigating through constant spinning and twist control: Experimental results", in OFC'2003 Tech. Dig., 2003, Paper WJ2,. pp. 367-368.

J. G. Ellison and A. S. Siddiqui, "Using polarimeteric optical time domain reflectometry to extract spun fiber parameters", Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. Optoelectron., vol. 148, pp. 176-182, 2001.

R. E. Schuh, X. Shan and A. S. Siddiqui, "Polarization mode dispersion in spun fibers with different linear birefringence and spinning parameters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, p. 1583, Sept. 1998.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri and A. Pizzinat, "Optimized spinning design for low PMD fibers: An analytical approach", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, p. 1502, Oct. 2001.

W. Primak and D. Post, "Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 30, pp. 779-780, 1959.

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, p. 148, Feb. 1996.

D. Q. Chowdhury and D. Wilcox, "Comparison between optical fiber birfringence induced by stress-anistropy & geometric deformation", in OFC/IOOC '99. Tech. Dig., vol. 2, 1999, pp. 220- 222.

H. C. Lefevre, "Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers", Electron. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 778-780, 1980.

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen and D. N. Payne, "Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 20, p. 2963, 1981.

A. C. Hart Jr., R. G. Huff and K. L. Walker, "Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin", U.S. Patent 5 298 047, Mar. 29, 1994 .

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1029-1030, 1986.

S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-1, pp. 312-331, June 1983.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. C. Bishoff and B. Perny, "Experimental investigations of the statistical properties of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 819-821, July 1993.

M. Monerie and L. Jeunhomme, "Polarization mode coupling in long single-mode fibers", Optical Quantum Electronics, vol. 12, pp. 449 -461, 1980.

R. Dandliker, "Rotational effects of polarization in optical fibers," in Anisotropic and Nonlinear Optical Waveguides, C. G. Someda, and G. Stegeman, Eds. New York: Elsevier, 1992, pp. 39-76.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, Boston, MA: Academic, 1991.

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