Abstract

We demonstrate a practical polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) emulator using programmable differential-group-delay (DGD) elements. The output PMD statistics of the emulator can be chosen by varying the average of the Maxwellian DGD distribution applied to each element. The emulator exhibits good stability and repeatability in a laboratory environment. In addition,we demonstrate how this emulator may be used to experimentally employ the powerful technique of importance sampling to quickly generate extremely low probability events. This technique is used to measure the Q-factor degradation due to both average and rare PMD values in a 10-Gb/s transmission system.

© 2004 IEEE

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  1. C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, San Diego, CA: 1997,vol. III-A,ch. 6, pp. 114-161.
  2. H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson and L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, San Diego, CA: 2002,vol. IV-B,ch. 15, pp. 725-861.
  3. H. Bülow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Küppers and W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'99), San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999.
  4. R. Khosravani, I. T. Lima Jr., P. Ebrahimi, E. Ibragimov, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Time and frequency domain characteristics of polarization-mode dispersion emulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 127-129, 2001.
  5. M. C. Hauer, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, E. R. Lyons, C. H. Lin, A. A. Au and H. P. Lee, "Compact, all-fiber PMD emulator using an integrated series of thin-film micro-heaters", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02) , Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002.
  6. J. N. Damask, "A programmable polarization-mode dispersion emulator for systematic testing of 10 Gb/s PMD compensators", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'00), Baltimore, MD, Mar. 2000.
  7. G. Biondini, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Importance sampling for polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 310 -312, 2002.
  8. I. T. Lima, G. Biondini, B. S. Marks, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Analysis of PMD compensators with fixed DGD using importance sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 627-629, 2002.
  9. S. L. Fogal, G. Biondini and W. L. Kath, "Multiple importance sampling for first-and second-order polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1273 -1275, 2002.
  10. A. Vannucci and A. Bononi, "Sensitivity penalty distribution in fibers with PMD: A novel semi-analytical technique", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002.
  11. J. Poirrier, H. Bülow and F. Buchali, "Optical PMD compensation performance: Numerical assessment", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002.
  12. J. Damask, P. Myers and T. Boschi, "Coherent PMD and programmable PMD generation", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'03), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003.
  13. D. Beltrame, F. Metera, M. Settembre, A. Galtarossa, A. Pizzinat, F. Favre, D. Le Guen and M. Henry, "Impact of polarization mode dispersion on the statistics of Q factor in optical transmission systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1400-1402, 2000 .
  14. P. B. Phua and H. A. Haus, "Variable differential-group-delay module without second-order PMD", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1788-1794, 2002.
  15. H. Bûlow, "Self-stabilizing continuously tunable group delay line for PMD compensation", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'02), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.
  16. L.-S. Yan, C. Yeh, G. Yang, L. Lin, Z. Chen, Y. Q. Shi, A. E. Willner and X. S. Yao, "Programmable group delay module using binary polarization switching", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1676-1684, 2003.
  17. L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu and A. E. Willner, "Periodic polarization scrambling with uniformly distributed SOP's on the Poincarè sphere", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'02), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.
  18. M. Karlsson, "Probability density functions of the differential group delay in optical fiber communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 324-331, 2001.
  19. J. H. Lee, M. S. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "Statistical PMD emulator using variable DGD elements", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 54-56, 2003 .
  20. B. L. Heffner, "Accurate, automated measurement of differential group delay dispersion and principal state variation using Jones matrix eigenanalysis", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 814-817, 1993.
  21. N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurement in optical amplifier systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 304 -306, 1993.

Other (21)

C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, San Diego, CA: 1997,vol. III-A,ch. 6, pp. 114-161.

H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson and L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, San Diego, CA: 2002,vol. IV-B,ch. 15, pp. 725-861.

H. Bülow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Küppers and W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'99), San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999.

R. Khosravani, I. T. Lima Jr., P. Ebrahimi, E. Ibragimov, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Time and frequency domain characteristics of polarization-mode dispersion emulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 127-129, 2001.

M. C. Hauer, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, E. R. Lyons, C. H. Lin, A. A. Au and H. P. Lee, "Compact, all-fiber PMD emulator using an integrated series of thin-film micro-heaters", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02) , Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002.

J. N. Damask, "A programmable polarization-mode dispersion emulator for systematic testing of 10 Gb/s PMD compensators", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'00), Baltimore, MD, Mar. 2000.

G. Biondini, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Importance sampling for polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 310 -312, 2002.

I. T. Lima, G. Biondini, B. S. Marks, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Analysis of PMD compensators with fixed DGD using importance sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 627-629, 2002.

S. L. Fogal, G. Biondini and W. L. Kath, "Multiple importance sampling for first-and second-order polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1273 -1275, 2002.

A. Vannucci and A. Bononi, "Sensitivity penalty distribution in fibers with PMD: A novel semi-analytical technique", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002.

J. Poirrier, H. Bülow and F. Buchali, "Optical PMD compensation performance: Numerical assessment", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002.

J. Damask, P. Myers and T. Boschi, "Coherent PMD and programmable PMD generation", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'03), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003.

D. Beltrame, F. Metera, M. Settembre, A. Galtarossa, A. Pizzinat, F. Favre, D. Le Guen and M. Henry, "Impact of polarization mode dispersion on the statistics of Q factor in optical transmission systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1400-1402, 2000 .

P. B. Phua and H. A. Haus, "Variable differential-group-delay module without second-order PMD", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1788-1794, 2002.

H. Bûlow, "Self-stabilizing continuously tunable group delay line for PMD compensation", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'02), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.

L.-S. Yan, C. Yeh, G. Yang, L. Lin, Z. Chen, Y. Q. Shi, A. E. Willner and X. S. Yao, "Programmable group delay module using binary polarization switching", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1676-1684, 2003.

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu and A. E. Willner, "Periodic polarization scrambling with uniformly distributed SOP's on the Poincarè sphere", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'02), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.

M. Karlsson, "Probability density functions of the differential group delay in optical fiber communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 324-331, 2001.

J. H. Lee, M. S. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "Statistical PMD emulator using variable DGD elements", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 54-56, 2003 .

B. L. Heffner, "Accurate, automated measurement of differential group delay dispersion and principal state variation using Jones matrix eigenanalysis", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 814-817, 1993.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurement in optical amplifier systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 304 -306, 1993.

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