Abstract

Highly versatile building blocks for polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) emulation and compensation are demonstrated using tunable all-pass filters fabricated in 4%-index-contrast planar waveguides. While the all-pass filters can approximate any phase response,the complexity in setting the individual filter parameters is minimized by restricting the all-pass filter responses to realize a range of differential delays, dispersion, and dispersion slope. A single section can approximate first-order or a higher-order PMD term or emulate chromatic or higher-order dispersion. A differential group delay (DGD) tuning range over 100 ps is demonstrated for 10 Gb/s and 25 ps for 40 Gb/s data. Second-order PMD with a tuning range of 255 ps^2 and third-order PMD with a range of 2430 ps^3 are also demonstrated. The larger index contrast required for the ring-resonator-based all-pass filters is advantageous in reducing the thermooptic response time to achieve polarization rotation speeds on the order of 0.1 µs/degree. The device is interferometrically stable and compact in size. It can be fully integrated, scaled to many sections,and can implement a variety of PMD synthesis and statistical-emulation approaches.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (24)

T. Saida, K. Takiguchi, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hashizume, T. Shibata and K. Okamoto, "Planar lightwave circuit polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Europ. Conf. Optical Commun., 2001.

L. Moller, "WDM polarization controller in PLC technology", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 585 -587, 2001.

C. Madsen and G. Lenz, "Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 994-996, 1998.

C. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. Bruce, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez and R. Scotti, "Integrated tunable allpass filters for adaptive dispersion and dispersion slope compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1623-1625, 1999.

C. Madsen, "Subband allpass filter architectures with applications to dispersion and dispersion slope compensation and continuously variable delay lines", J. Lightwave Technol., July 2003.

C. Madsen, S. Chandrasekhar, E. Laskowski, K. Bogart, M. Cappuzzo, A. Paunescu, L. Stulz and L. Gomez, "Compact integrated tunable chromatic dispersion compensator with a 4000 Ps/Nm tuning range", in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, p. PD9.

C. Doerr, L. Stulz, D. Levy, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen and G. Richards, "Cross-connect-type wavelength add-drop node with integrated band muxes, interleavers and monitor", in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Atlanta, GA, Mar. 23-28 2003.

L. Soldano and E. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 13, pp. 615-627, 1995.

Y. Hashizume, R. Kasahara, T. Saida, Y. Inoue and M. Okano, "Integrated polarization beam splitter using waveguide birefringence dependence on waveguide core width", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 25, pp. 1517-1518, 2001.

C. Madsen, E. Laskowski, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin and A. Wong-Foy, "Ring resonators with polarization diversity using integrated polarization beam splitters", in Integrat. Photon. Res. Conf., June 16-18 2003.

R. Khosravani, I. Lima, P. Ebrahimi, E. Ibragimov, A. Willner and C. Menyuk, "Time and frequency domain characteristics of polarization-mode dispersion emulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 127-129, 2001.

J. Damask, "A programmable polarization-mode dispersion emulator for systematic testing of 10 Gb/s PMD compensators", Optical Fiber Commun., 2000.

L. Yan, C. Yeh, G. Yang, L. Lin, Z. Chen, Y. Shi and X. Yao, "Fast digitally variable differential group delay module using polarization switching", in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2002.

J. Lee and Y. Chung, "Statistical PMD emulator using variable DGD elements", in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2002.

L. Moller and H. Kogelnik, "PMD emulator restricted to first and second order PMD generation", in Proc. ECOC, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 64-65.

A. Orlandini and L. Vincetti, "A simple and useful model for Jones matrix to evaluate higher order polarization-mode dispersion effects", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1176 -1178, 2001.

M. Wegmuller, S. Demma, C. Vinegoni and N. Gisin, "Emulator of first-and second-order polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 630-632, 2002.

A. Eyal, W. Marshall, M. Tur and A. Yariv, "Representation of second-order polarization mode dispersion", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 19, pp. 1658-1659, Sept. 16, 1999.

A. Eyal and A. Yariv, "Design of broad-band PMD compensation filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1088-1090, 2002.

C. Madsen and P. Oswald, "Optical filter architecture for approximating any 2 × 2 unitary matrix", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 534-536, 2003.

C. Madsen, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, A. Griffin, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, R. Long, J. Bailey, J. Weld and P. Oswald, "An integrated polarization mode dispersion emulator or compensator with tunable chromatic dispersion", in Integrat. Photon. Res., Vancouver, Canada,July 17-19 2002, paper IThG3.

T. Ozeki and T. Kudo, "Adaptive equalization of polarization mode dispersion", in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1993, pp. 143-144.

J. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", Proc. Nat. Academy Sciences USA, vol. 97, pp. 4541-4550, 2000.

H. Kogelnik, R. Jopson and L. Nelson, "Polarization-mode dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommun. IVB, I. Kaminow, and T. Li, Eds. New York: Academic, 2002, pp. 725-861.

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