Abstract

For transmission systems at 10 Gb/s and beyond, polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the limiting factors. Optical PMD compensators aim at increasing the PMD value tolerated by the system; however, they do not cancel out its effects. Therefore, the performance of a PMD compensator is assessed statistically. Requirements for optical PMD compensators include a response time in the range of 1 ms in order to follow polarization fluctuations over the line. The system design should account for the interaction of other transmission impairments with the PMD compensator operation. For instance,transmitter chirp and residual chromatic dispersion have a deleterious impact on the compensator performance. While self-phase modulation is harmless, cross-phase modulation greatly reduces the compensator efficiency. System design rules have been applied to a one-year field trial, showing the compensator's efficiency and reliability. However, reducing their cost is the next challenge that will bring optical PMD compensators to be used in installed systems.

© 2004 IEEE

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  1. C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 1029-1030, 1986.
  2. C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy and D. A. Fishman, "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 68-70, Jan. 1991.
  3. L. M. Gleeson, E. S. R. Sikora and M. J. O'Mahoney, "Experimental and numerical investigation into the penalties induced by second order polarization mode dispersion at 10 Gb/s", in Proc. ECOC 97, vol. 1, 1997, pp. 15- 18.
  4. C. Francia, F. Bruyère, J.-P. Thiéry and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 414-415, 1999.
  5. H. Ooi, Y. Akilama and G. Ishikawa, "Automatic polarization-mode dispersion compensation in 40 Gb/s transmission", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf.'99, San Diego, CA, 1999,Paper WE5.
  6. F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in ECOC'98 , vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 529-530.
  7. R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, C. Glingener, C. Sheerer, A. Shoepflin and G. Fisher, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 20 Gb/s with fiber-based distributed equaliser", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 25, pp. 2421-2422, 1998 .
  8. J. H. Winters, Z. Hass, M. A. Santoro and A. H. Gnauck, "Optical equalization of polarization dispersion", presented at the SPIE 1787, 1992.
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  12. S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiéry, D. Penninckx, J.-P. Hamaide, J.-P. Soigné, B. Desthieux, J. Le Briand, L. Macé and P. Gavignet, "Field optical PMD compensation at 10 Gb/s over installed fiber totalling 35 ps of PMD", in Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, pp. 207-208.
  13. M. W. Chbat, J.-P. Soigné, T. Fuerst, J. T. Anthony, S. Lanne, H. Février, B. Desthieux, A. H. Bush and D. Penninckx, "Long term field demonstration of optical PMD compensation on an installed OC-192", in Link Proc. OFC'99, San Diego, CA, Feb. 21-26 1999,PD12.
  14. D. L. Peterson Jr, B. C. Ward, K. B. Rochford, P. J. Leo and G. Simer, "Polarization mode dispersion compensator field trial and field fiber characterization", Opt. Exp., vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 614-621, July 2002.
  15. D. Penninckx and S. Lanne, "Reducing PMD impairments", in Proc. OFC'2001, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2001,Invited Paper, TuP1.
  16. D. Penninckx and S. Lanne, "Ultimate limits for PMD compensators", in Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, Paper P3.8.
  17. R. Khosravani, S. A. Havstad, Y. W. Song, P. Ebrahimi and A. E. Willner, "Polarization-mode dispersion compensation in WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1370-1371, Dec. 2001.
  18. D. Penninckx and S. Lanne, "Influence of the statistics on polarization-mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. OFC2000, 2000, Paper WL6,. pp. 204-206.
  19. J. Poirrier, H. Bülow and F. Buchali, "Optical PMD compensation performance: Numerical assessment", in Proc. OFC2002, 2002, Paper WI3,. pp. 234-236.
  20. L. S. Yan, M. Hauer, A. E. Willner, Y. Shi, X. Yao and W. L. Kath, "Experimental importance sampling using 3-section PMD emulator with programmable DGD element", in Proc. OFC2003, 2003, pp. 421- 422.
  21. H. Bülow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers and W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. OFC2000 , vol. 2, 2000, pp. 83-85.
  22. S. Lanne, D. Penninckx, J.-P. Thiéry and J.-P. Hamaide, "Impact of chirping on polarization-mode dispersion compensated systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1492 -1494, Nov. 2000.
  23. C. R. Menyuk, "Stability of solitons in birefringent fibers. II. Arbitrary amplitudes", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 392-401, Feb. 1988.
  24. E. Ibragimov, C. R. Menyuk and W. Kath, "PMD-induced reduction of nonlinear penalties in terrestrial optical fiber transmission", in Proc. OFC2000, 2000, Paper WL3,. pp. 195-197.
  25. B. Olsson and D. Blumenthal, "Pulse width restoration and PMD suppression using fiber self-phase modulation", in Proc. ECOC'2000, Munich, Germany, 2000,Paper P 1-2.
  26. L. Möller, L. Boivin, S. Chandrasekhar and L. L. Buhl, "Setup for demonstration of cross channel induced nonlinear PMD in WDM system", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 306-307, Mar. 2001.
  27. E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne, S. Bigo, A. Vannucci and A. Bononi, "Experimental statistical assessment of XPM impact on optical PMD compensator efficiency", in Proc. OFC2003, 2003, Paper ThJ2,. pp. 499-501.
  28. R. Khosravani, Y. Xie, L.-S. Yan, Y. W. Song, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Limitations to first-order PMD compensation in WDM systems due to XPM-induced PSP changes", in Proc. OFC2001, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2001,Paper WAA5.
  29. Z. Pan, Q. Yu and A. E. Willner, "Fast XPM-induced polarization-state fluctuations in WDM systems and their mitigation", in Proc. OFC2002, Anaheim, CA, 2002,Paper ThA7,. pp. 379-381.
  30. B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, "Non-linear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1582-1584, Nov. 2000.
  31. A. Vannucci, A. Bononi, A. Orlandini, E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne and S. Bigo, "A simple DOP formula for the degree of polarization degraded by XPM and its experimental validation", in Proc. OFC2003, 2003, Paper ThJ2,. pp. 498-499.
  32. K.-P. Ho and C. Lin, "Performance analysis of optical transmission system with polarization-mode dispersion and forward-error correction", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1288-1290, Sept. 1997 .
  33. M. Tomizawa, Y. Kisaka, T. Ono, Y. Miyamoto and Y. Tada, "FEC performance in PMD limited high-speed optical transmission systems", in Proc. ECOC'2000, Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 97-98.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (32)

H. Bülow, "Limitation of optical first-order PMD compensation", presented at the Tech. Dig. OFC/IOOC'99, San Diego, CA, Paper WE1, Feb. 21-26, 1999.

D. A. Watley, K. S. Farley, W. S. Lee, G. Bordogna, B. J. Shaw and A. P. Hadjifotiou, "Field evaluation of an optical PMD compensator using an installed 10 Gbit/s system", in Proc. OFC2000, 2000, Paper ThB6,. pp. 37-39.

S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiéry, D. Penninckx, J.-P. Hamaide, J.-P. Soigné, B. Desthieux, J. Le Briand, L. Macé and P. Gavignet, "Field optical PMD compensation at 10 Gb/s over installed fiber totalling 35 ps of PMD", in Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, pp. 207-208.

M. W. Chbat, J.-P. Soigné, T. Fuerst, J. T. Anthony, S. Lanne, H. Février, B. Desthieux, A. H. Bush and D. Penninckx, "Long term field demonstration of optical PMD compensation on an installed OC-192", in Link Proc. OFC'99, San Diego, CA, Feb. 21-26 1999,PD12.

D. L. Peterson Jr, B. C. Ward, K. B. Rochford, P. J. Leo and G. Simer, "Polarization mode dispersion compensator field trial and field fiber characterization", Opt. Exp., vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 614-621, July 2002.

D. Penninckx and S. Lanne, "Reducing PMD impairments", in Proc. OFC'2001, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2001,Invited Paper, TuP1.

D. Penninckx and S. Lanne, "Ultimate limits for PMD compensators", in Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, Paper P3.8.

R. Khosravani, S. A. Havstad, Y. W. Song, P. Ebrahimi and A. E. Willner, "Polarization-mode dispersion compensation in WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1370-1371, Dec. 2001.

D. Penninckx and S. Lanne, "Influence of the statistics on polarization-mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. OFC2000, 2000, Paper WL6,. pp. 204-206.

J. Poirrier, H. Bülow and F. Buchali, "Optical PMD compensation performance: Numerical assessment", in Proc. OFC2002, 2002, Paper WI3,. pp. 234-236.

L. S. Yan, M. Hauer, A. E. Willner, Y. Shi, X. Yao and W. L. Kath, "Experimental importance sampling using 3-section PMD emulator with programmable DGD element", in Proc. OFC2003, 2003, pp. 421- 422.

H. Bülow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers and W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. OFC2000 , vol. 2, 2000, pp. 83-85.

S. Lanne, D. Penninckx, J.-P. Thiéry and J.-P. Hamaide, "Impact of chirping on polarization-mode dispersion compensated systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1492 -1494, Nov. 2000.

C. R. Menyuk, "Stability of solitons in birefringent fibers. II. Arbitrary amplitudes", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 392-401, Feb. 1988.

E. Ibragimov, C. R. Menyuk and W. Kath, "PMD-induced reduction of nonlinear penalties in terrestrial optical fiber transmission", in Proc. OFC2000, 2000, Paper WL3,. pp. 195-197.

B. Olsson and D. Blumenthal, "Pulse width restoration and PMD suppression using fiber self-phase modulation", in Proc. ECOC'2000, Munich, Germany, 2000,Paper P 1-2.

L. Möller, L. Boivin, S. Chandrasekhar and L. L. Buhl, "Setup for demonstration of cross channel induced nonlinear PMD in WDM system", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 306-307, Mar. 2001.

E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne, S. Bigo, A. Vannucci and A. Bononi, "Experimental statistical assessment of XPM impact on optical PMD compensator efficiency", in Proc. OFC2003, 2003, Paper ThJ2,. pp. 499-501.

R. Khosravani, Y. Xie, L.-S. Yan, Y. W. Song, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Limitations to first-order PMD compensation in WDM systems due to XPM-induced PSP changes", in Proc. OFC2001, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2001,Paper WAA5.

Z. Pan, Q. Yu and A. E. Willner, "Fast XPM-induced polarization-state fluctuations in WDM systems and their mitigation", in Proc. OFC2002, Anaheim, CA, 2002,Paper ThA7,. pp. 379-381.

B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, "Non-linear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1582-1584, Nov. 2000.

A. Vannucci, A. Bononi, A. Orlandini, E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne and S. Bigo, "A simple DOP formula for the degree of polarization degraded by XPM and its experimental validation", in Proc. OFC2003, 2003, Paper ThJ2,. pp. 498-499.

K.-P. Ho and C. Lin, "Performance analysis of optical transmission system with polarization-mode dispersion and forward-error correction", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1288-1290, Sept. 1997 .

M. Tomizawa, Y. Kisaka, T. Ono, Y. Miyamoto and Y. Tada, "FEC performance in PMD limited high-speed optical transmission systems", in Proc. ECOC'2000, Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 97-98.

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 1029-1030, 1986.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy and D. A. Fishman, "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 68-70, Jan. 1991.

L. M. Gleeson, E. S. R. Sikora and M. J. O'Mahoney, "Experimental and numerical investigation into the penalties induced by second order polarization mode dispersion at 10 Gb/s", in Proc. ECOC 97, vol. 1, 1997, pp. 15- 18.

C. Francia, F. Bruyère, J.-P. Thiéry and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 414-415, 1999.

H. Ooi, Y. Akilama and G. Ishikawa, "Automatic polarization-mode dispersion compensation in 40 Gb/s transmission", in Proc. Optical Fiber Conf.'99, San Diego, CA, 1999,Paper WE5.

F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in ECOC'98 , vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 529-530.

R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, C. Glingener, C. Sheerer, A. Shoepflin and G. Fisher, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 20 Gb/s with fiber-based distributed equaliser", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 25, pp. 2421-2422, 1998 .

J. H. Winters, Z. Hass, M. A. Santoro and A. H. Gnauck, "Optical equalization of polarization dispersion", presented at the SPIE 1787, 1992.

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