Abstract

This paper shows how to use multiple importance sampling to study the performance of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensators with a single differential group delay (DGD) element. We compute the eye opening penalty margin for compensated and uncompensated systems with outage probabilities of 10^-5 or less with a fraction of the computational cost required by standard Monte Carlo methods. This paper shows that the performance of an optimized compensator with a fixed DGD element is comparable to that of a compensator with a variable DGD element. It also shows that the optimal value of the DGD compensator is two to three times larger than the mean DGD of the transmission line averaged over fiber realizations. This technique can be applied to the optimization of any PMD compensator whose dominant sources of residual penalty are both the DGD and the length of the frequency derivative of the polarization-dispersion vector.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Other

E. Veach, "Robust Monte Carlo Methods for Light Transport Simulation", Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 1997 .

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. , vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 4541-4550, 2000.

I. T. Lima, Jr., A. O. Lima, J. Zweck and C. R. Menyuk, "Efficient computation of outage probabilities due to polarization effects in a WDM system using a reduced stokes model and importance sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 45-47, 2003.

G. Biondini, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Non-Maxwellian DGD distributions of PMD emulators", in Proc. OFC 2001, 2001, ThA5,. pp. 1-3.

G. Poole and D. L. Favin, "Polarization dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 12, pp. 917-929, 1994.

H. Bülow, "System outage probability due to first-and second-order PMD", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 696 -698, 1998.

P. R. Trischitta and E. L. Varma, Jitter in Digital Transmission Systems, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1989.

E. Polak, Computational Methods in Optimization, New York: Academic, 1971.

T. Takahashi, T. Imai and M. Aiki, "Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuation polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 348-349, 1994.

R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, C. Glingener, C. Scheerer, A. Schopflin and G. Fisher, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 20 Gbit/s with fiber-based distributed equalizer", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 25, pp. 2421-2422, 1998.

D. Mahgerefteh and C. R. Menyuk, "Effect of first-order PMD compensation on the statistics of pulse broadening in a fiber with randomly varying birefringence", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 340-342, 1999.

H. Bülow, "Limitation of optical first-order PMD compensation", in Proc. ECOC 1999, 1999, WE1,. pp. 74-76.

C. Francia, F. Bruyère, J. P. Thiéry and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 414-415, 1999.

H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "PMD compensation in 10 Gbit/s NRZ field experiment using polarimetric error signal", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 448-450, 2000.

H. Sunnerud, C. Xie, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Outage probabilities in PMD compensated transmission systems", in Proc. ECOC 2001, 2001, Tu.A.3.1,. pp. 204-205.

A. O. Lima, I. T. Lima, Jr., T. Adali and C. R. Menyuk, "A novel polarization diversity receiver for PMD mitigation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 465-467, 2002.

I. T. Lima, Jr., G. Biondini, B. S. Marks, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Analysis of PMD compensators with fixed DGD using importance sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 627 -629, 2002.

G. Biondini, W. L. Kath and C. R. Menyuk, "Importance sampling for polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 310 -312, 2002.

S. L. Fogal, G. Biondini and W. L. Kath, "Multiple importance sampling for first-and second-order polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1273-1275, 2002.

F. Heismann, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gbit/s transmission system", in Proc. ECOC 1998, 1998, pp. 329-330.

R. Y. Rubinstein, Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method, New York: Wiley, 1981.

A. O. Lima, I. T. Lima, Jr. , B. S. Marks, C. R. Menuyk and W. L. Kath, "Performance analysis of single-section PMD compensators using multiple importance sampling", in Proc. OFC 2003, 2003, ThA3,. pp. 419-421.

B. Falcidieno, I. Herman and C. Pienovi, Computer Graphics and Mathematics , New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992 .

H. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980.

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