Abstract

A 40-GHz mode-locked fiber-ring laser based on an optically controlled modulator is presented and analyzed in detail. The modulator is a monolithic InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder interferometer with integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers, which allows optical pulse generation synchronized to an external optical clock pulse stream. The laser generates nearly transform-limited Gaussian pulses of 2.5-ps width and up to 9-mW mean output power with less than 130 fs of timing jitter, and it is wavelength tunable over more than 30 nm. The relationship between key laser parameters and the output pulse characteristics is analyzed experimentally and numerically. An improved cavity design permits the generation of shorter pulses of 1.0-ps width.

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  56. T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling III, M. Horowitz and C. R. Menyuk, "Dispersion management in a harmonically mode-locked fiber soliton laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 153-155, 2000.
  57. K. Tamura, E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, "Forced phase modulation and self phase modulation in dispersion-tuned mode-locked fiber lasers", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E81-C, no. 2, pp. 195-200, 1998.
  58. H. Sotobayashi and K. Kikuchi, "Design theory of ultra-short pulse generation from actively mode-locked fiber lasers", IEICE Trans. Electron. , vol. E81-C, no. 2, pp. 201-207, 1998.
  59. E. Yoshida, K. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, "Intracavity dispersion effects of a regeneratively and harmonically FM mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E81-C, no. 2, pp. 189-194, 1998.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (60)

C. Wu and N. K. Dutta, "High repetition rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 145-150, 2000.

K. E. Stubkjaer, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, pp. 1428-1435, Nov.-Dec. 2000.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno and K. Tajima, "168 Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type switch", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1091-1093, Oct. 2001.

E. Gini, E. Gamper, W. Vogt and H. Melchior, "Monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active SOA's and phase shifters for lambda = 1550 nm using four step LP MOVPE growth", in Proc. ECOC'99, Nice, France, 1999, pp. 174-175.

S. Diez, E. Hilliger, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, H. G. Weber, L. Occhi, L. Schares, G. Guekos and L. K. Oxenloewe, "Optimization of SOA-based Sagnac-interferometer switches for demultiplexing to 10 and 40 Gb/s", Opt. Commun., vol. 189, pp. 241-249, 2001.

L. Schares, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, H. G. Weber, L. Occhi and G. Guekos, "Phase dynamics of semiconductor optical amplifiers at 10 to 40 GHz", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, pp. 1394-1408, Nov. 2003.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk and P. R. Prucnal, "Comparison of three nonlinear interferometric optical switch geometries", Opt. Commun., vol. 175, pp. 365 -373, 2000.

P. A. Morton, R. J. Helkey and J. E. Bowers, "Dynamic detuning in actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 25, pp. 2621 -2633, Dec. 1989.

L. Schares, "Mode-locked fiber ring lasers with semiconductor optical amplifiers for repetition rates between 10 and 160 Ghz", Ph.D. dissertation no. 15359, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, 2003.

X. Shan, D. Cleland and A. D. Ellis, "Stabilising Er fiber soliton laser with pulse phase locking", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 182-184, 1992.

L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Stability and jitter of 10-GHz fiber ring laser using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with integrated SOAs", in Proc. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA'02), Vancouver, BC, Canada,July 14-17 2002, Paper OWC3.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, C. McNeilage, J. Searls and H. Yokoyama, "Quantum-limited noise performance of a mode-locked laser diode", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 49-51, 2002.

D. von der Linde, "Characterization of noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers", Appl. Phys. B, vol. 39, pp. 201-217, 1986.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock and B. H. Kolner, "High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 7, pp. 641-655, July-Sept. 2001.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest and P. J. Delfyett, "Complete characterization of external cavity semiconductor laser hybridly modelocked at 10 GHz", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 1338-1339, 2001.

D. J. Derickson, A. Mar and J. E. Bowers, "Residual and absolute timing jitter in actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 2026-2028, 1990.

Agilent Technologies. (2000) Application Note 150. [Online]. Available: http://www.agilent.com

Agilent Technologies. (2003) Spectrum analyzer measurements and noise, Application Note 1303. [Online]. Available: http://www.agilent.com

K. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, "Dispersion-tuning harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser for self-synchronization to an external clock", Opt. Lett. , vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 1984-1986, 1996.

L. P. Barry, S. Del Burgo, B. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid and J. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40 Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 971-973, July 2002 .

J. Debeau, B. Kowalski and R. Boittin, "Simple method for the complete characterization of an optical pulse", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1784 -1786, 1998.

P. Kockaert, M. Peeters, S. Coen, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman and O. Deparis, "Simple amplitude and phase measureing technique for ultrahigh repetition rate lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 187-189, Feb. 2000.

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger and H. Jäckel, "Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1677-1679, Dec. 2000.

P.-A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, J.-M. Merolla, H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer and W. T. Rhodes, "Milliwatt-peak-power pulse characterization at 1.55 µm by wavelength conversion frequency resolved optical gating", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 863-865, 2002.

Y. Ozeki, Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, "High dynamic range characterization of waveform and frequency chirp of picosecond pulses based on the precise measurement of group delay in optical frequency domain", in Proc. OFC'03, vol. 2, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 23-28 2003,Paper FL3,. pp. 725-727.

E. R. Thoen, M. E. Grein, E. M. Koontz, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Stabilization of an active harmonically mode-locked fiber laser using two-photon absorption", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 948-950, 2000.

G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, "Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission", Opt. Lett. , vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 107-109, 1993.

D. J. Jones, H. A. Haus and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond solitons in an actively mode-locked fiber laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 22, pp. 1818-1820, 1996.

X. Zhang, M. Karlsson and P. Andrekson, "Design guidelines of actively mode-locked fiber ring lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1103-1105, Aug. 2000.

T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling III, M. Horowitz and C. R. Menyuk, "Dispersion management in a harmonically mode-locked fiber soliton laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 153-155, 2000.

K. Tamura, E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, "Forced phase modulation and self phase modulation in dispersion-tuned mode-locked fiber lasers", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E81-C, no. 2, pp. 195-200, 1998.

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kikuchi, "Design theory of ultra-short pulse generation from actively mode-locked fiber lasers", IEICE Trans. Electron. , vol. E81-C, no. 2, pp. 201-207, 1998.

E. Yoshida, K. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, "Intracavity dispersion effects of a regeneratively and harmonically FM mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E81-C, no. 2, pp. 189-194, 1998.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen and H. A. Haus, "Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1433 -1435, Dec. 1994.

L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "80 GHz fiber ring laser using monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers", presented at the 7th OptoElectronics Communications Conf. (OECC'02) , Yokohama, Japan,July 8-12 , 2002.

R. S. Tucker, U. Koren, G. Raybon, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, T. L. Koch and G. Eisenstein, "40-GHz active mode-locking in a 1.5 µm monolithic extended-cavity laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 621-622, 1989.

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, T. Kunii, S. Oshiba and Y. Ogawa, "Transform-limited optical short-pulse generation at high repetition rate over 40 GHz from a monolithic passive mode-locked DBR laser diode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 1362-1365, Dec. 1993.

E. A. Avrutin, J. H. Marsh and E. L. Portnoi, "Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Constructions, experiments, models and applications", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 147, no. 4, pp. 251-278, 2000.

I. Ogura, H. Kurita, T. Sasaki and H. Yokoyama, "Precise operation-frequency control of monolithic mode-locked laser diodes for high-speed optical communication and all-optical signal-processing", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, pp. 709-725, 2001.

K. Saito, A. Hirano and H. Ishii, "Chirp-compensated 40-GHz mode-locked lasers integrated with electroabsorption modulators and chirped gratings", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, pp. 590-595, May-June 1999.

S. Arahira, N. Mineo, K. Tashibana and Y. Ogawa, "40-GHz hybrid modelocked laser diode module operated at ultra-low RF power with impedance matching circuit", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 287-289, 2003.

R. Kaiser, B. Hüttl, H. Heidrich, S. Fidorra, W. Rebein, H. Stolpe, R. Stencel, W. Ebert and G. Sahin, "Tunable monolithic mode-locked lasers on InP with low timing jitter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 634-636, May 2003.

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, T. Furuta, H. Ito and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 884-886, 2002.

M. Dülk, W. Hunziker, L. Tallone and H. Melchior, "40-GHz actively mode-locked semiconductor laser with hybrid external fiber Bragg grating cavity", in Proc. ECOC'00, Munich, Germany, 2000,Paper 6.3.6,. pp. 171-172.

D. Arbel, U. Koren, S. Shalom, M. Winik, L. Reznik, M. Zimmermann, R. Sasson, D. Hadass and S. Breitbart, "40-GHz hybrid semiconductor pulse generating laser for RZ transmission", in Proc. ECOC'01, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, pp. 338-339.

Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada, R. Kuribayashi and H. Yokoyama, "40-GHz tunable optical pulse generation from a highly stable external cavity mode-locked semiconductor laser module", in Proc. OFC'02, Anaheim, CA, 2002,Paper WV5,. pp. 342-343.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40-GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 584-585, 2001.

R. Hui, B. Zhu, K. Demarest, C. Allen and J. Hong, "Generation of ultrahigh-speed tunable-rate optical pulses using strongly gain-coupled dual-wavelength DFB laser diodes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 518-520, May 1999.

A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips and D. Nesset, "1.6 ps pulse generation at 40 GHz in phaselocked ring laser incorporating highly nonlinear fiber for application to 160 Gbit/s OTDM networks", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 645-646, 1999.

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