Abstract

This paper reports on an initial investigation into the operation of a mode-locked fiber laser system for application in gas spectroscopy as a multipoint multigas sensor. Wavelength selection is performed by use of multiple chirped gratings and fine tuning by using the dispersion properties of the chirped gratings. A tuning rate of ~0.014 nm per kHz change in mode-lock frequency (at the third harmonic) has been demonstrated, which is suitable for scanning across gas absorption lines. Key issues that have an important bearing on the tuning are discussed, including gain flattening and polarization drift. This paper investigates a method of multiplexing the sensor cells with the mode-locked system. Preliminary results for a two cavity system are presented to verify the principles of the technique.

© 2004 IEEE

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  1. P. Werle, "A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors", Spectrocimica Acta Part A, vol. 54, pp. 197-236, 1998.
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  17. K. Chan and C. Shu, "Compensated dispersion tuning in harmonically mode-locked fiber laser", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 891-893, Aug. 1999.
  18. I. N. Duling III and R. D. Esman, "Single polarization fiber amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1126-1128, 1992 .
  19. K. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, "Dispersion tuned harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser for self-synchronization to an external clock", Opt. Lett. , vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 1984-1986, 1996.
  20. Y. Zhang, W. Jin, H. B. Yu, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, H. L. Ho, M. S. Demokan, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw and Y. H. Li, "Novel intra-cavity sensing network based on mode-locked fiber laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1336-1338, Sept. 2002.
  21. P. V. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan and B. Jalali, "Time domain optical sensing", Proc. IEEE, pp. 381-382, 1999.

Opt. Lett.

Other

F. J. McAleavay, et al. "Narrow linewidth, tuneable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical based hydrocarbon sensing", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1103 -1111, 1997.

E. T. Wetjen, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen and T. F. Morse, "Demonstration of rapidly strain tuned Er3+-doped fiber laser for sensitive gas detection", Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 3370-3375, May 1999.

J. Hernandez-Condero and T. F. Morse, "Fiber laser intra-cavity spectroscopy (FLICS)", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E83-C, pp. 371-376, 2000.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu and B. Culshaw, "Investigation of an optical fiber amplifier loop for intracavity and cavity ring-down loss measurements", IoP J. Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 843-849, 2001.

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind and A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modeling and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 3, pp. 991-1007, Aug. 1997.

S. K. Kim, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone and B. Culshaw, "Mode-hop-free single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser frequency scanned with a fiber ring resonator", Appl. Opt. , vol. 38, no. 24, pp. 5154-5157, Aug. 1999.

G. Stewart, H. Yu, G. Whitenett and B. Culshaw, "A mode-locked fiber laser system for multi-point intra-cavity gas spectroscopy", in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-15), 2002, pp. 257-260.

C. Shu and Y. Zhao, "Characteristics of dispersion-tuning in harmonically mode-locked fiber laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1106-1108, Aug. 1998.

Y. Zhao, C. Shu, J. H. Chen and F. S. Chao, "Wavelength tuning of 1/2-rational harmonically mode-locked pulses in a cavity-dispersive fiber laser", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 73, no. 24, pp. 3483-3485, Dec. 1998.

P. N. Kean, J. W. D. Gray, I. Bennion and N. J. Doran, "Dispersion-modified actively modelocked erbium fiber laser using a chirped fiber grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 25, pp. 2133-2134, Dec. 1994.

K. Chan and C. Shu, "Compensated dispersion tuning in harmonically mode-locked fiber laser", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 891-893, Aug. 1999.

I. N. Duling III and R. D. Esman, "Single polarization fiber amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1126-1128, 1992 .

K. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, "Dispersion tuned harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser for self-synchronization to an external clock", Opt. Lett. , vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 1984-1986, 1996.

Y. Zhang, W. Jin, H. B. Yu, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, H. L. Ho, M. S. Demokan, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw and Y. H. Li, "Novel intra-cavity sensing network based on mode-locked fiber laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1336-1338, Sept. 2002.

P. V. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan and B. Jalali, "Time domain optical sensing", Proc. IEEE, pp. 381-382, 1999.

P. Werle, "A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors", Spectrocimica Acta Part A, vol. 54, pp. 197-236, 1998.

B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh and M. G. Allen, "Measurements of CO, CO2, OH and H2 O in room temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser", Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1506-1512, 1999.

M. G. Allen, "Diode laser absorption sensors for gas dynamic and combustion flows", J. Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 9, pp. 545-562, 1998.

H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, L. W. Carr, D. E. Cooper, R. U. Martinelli and R. J. Menna, "Design of an open path near-infrared diode laser sensor: application to oxygen, water and carbon dioxide vapor detection", Appl. Opt., vol. 33, no. 30, pp. 7059-7066, 1994.

G. Stewart, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, M. A. Morante, F. Dong and B. Culshaw, "Design of a fiber optic multi-point sensor for gas detection", Sens. Actuators B, vol. 51, no. 1-3, pp. 25-37, Aug. 1998.

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