Abstract

A definitive goal for optical performance monitoring in an optical communications network is to provide comprehensive signal quality information in a cost-effective manner. This paper explores in detail the possibility of using nonlinear optical detection to achieve this goal. Sensitive nonlinear detection techniques commonly used in the field of ultrafast optics are applied to the problem of performance monitoring and are shown to allow quantitative measurements to be made of quantities such as accumulated chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion impairment, optical signal-to-noise ratio, and extinction ratio. Experiments performed on a 40-Gb/s transmission system demonstrate the immediate viability of this approach for measuring these quantities of interest at practical optical power levels.

© 2004 IEEE

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Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Other

D. C. Kilper, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Buhl, A. Agarwal and D. Maywar, "Spectral monitoring of OSNR in high-speed networks", presented at the ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 7.4.4, Sept. 8-12, 2002.

L. Moller, P. S. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta and S. Wielandy, "SOP and PMD monitoring with WDM polarimeter", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 583-585, June 6, 2002.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson and M. Karlsson, "Multi-channel OSNR monitoring for WDM networks", presented at the ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 1.1.6, Sept. 8-12, 2002.

L. Noirie, F. Cérou, G. Moustakides, O. Audouin and P. Peloso, "New transparent optical monitoring of the eye and BER using asynchronous under-sampling of the signal", presented at the ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper PD2.2, Sept. 8-12, 2002.

I. Shake, H. Takara and T. Morioka, "Determination of the origin of BER degradation utilizing asynchronous amplitude histograms", presented at the CLEO/Pacific Rim 2001, Chiba, Japan,July 15-19, 2001.

Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for RZ and NRZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling", presented at the OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, Paper WH5, Mar. 19-22, 2001.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chromatic dispersion for automatic dispersion compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1198-1199, Sept. 26, 2002.

T. Inui, K. R. Tamura, K. Mori and T. Morioka, "Bit rate flexible chirp measurement technique using two-photon absorption", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1459-1460, Nov. 7, 2002.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995, pp. 64-69.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, "Technique for multiplying the repetition rates of periodic trains of pulses by means of a temporal self-imaging effect in chirped fiber gratings", Opt. Lett. , vol. 24, pp. 1672-1674, Dec. 1, 1999.

C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, "Polarization effects in lightwave systems," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, and T. L. Koch, Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic., 1997,vol. IIIA, pp. 114-161.

G. Bendelli, C. Cavazzoni, R. Girardi and R. Lano, "Optical performance monitoring techniques", in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), vol. 4, 2000, pp. 113-116.

R. A. Griffin, R. G. Walker, B. J. Buck, R. Powell, L. N. Langley, J. Hall and A. C. Carter, "40 Gb/s RZ GaAs transmitter with integrated waveform monitoring", presented at the ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 10.5.4, Sept. 8-12, 2002.

H. Stuart, "Signal-to-noise ratio monitoring of optical data using narrowband RF analysis at the half-clock frequency", presented at the OFC 2003 , Atlanta, GA, Paper WP5, Mar. 23-28, 2003.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox and K. Bergman, "Ultra-sensitive autocorrelation of 1.5 µm light with single photon counting silicon avalanche photodiode", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 86-88, Jan. 17, 2002.

P. Reyes and P. S. Westbrook, "Tunable PDL of twisted-tilted fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 828 -830, June 2003.

B. Zhu, et al. "3.2 Tb/s (80 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 20 × 100 km of nonzero dispersion fiber with simultaneous C + L-band dispersion compensation", presented at the OFC 2002, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22, 2002.

B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen and B. Mikkelsen, "Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high bit rate systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 18, pp. 1418-1432, Nov. 2000.

P. Lacourt, M. Gross and S. Ralph, "Frequency-resolved optical gating at 1550 nm using semiconductor optical amplifier four-wave mixing", presented at the OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Paper FH5, Mar. 23-28, 2003.

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