Abstract

We show theoretically and experimentally the relationship between a signal's degree of polarization (DOP), all-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and the optical spectrum (and hence the data modulation format and pulse width), and that these effects must be taken into account when using the DOP for differential group delay (DGD) monitoring. We explain the theory behind how all-order PMD affects a signal's DOP, and observe the pulse-width dependence for 10-, 20-, and 40-Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) systems as the duty cycle changes. We then analyze and show (via simulation and experimentation) the effects of different data modulation formats (RZ, carrier-suppressed RZ,alternate-chirped RZ, and differential phase-shift keying) on the DOP in a DGD monitor. We conclude that the measurable DGD range and DOP sensitivity in DOP-based DGD monitors are dependent on a signal's pulse width and the data modulation format. We also show the theory behind the effects of first-and second-order PMD on the maximum and minimum DOP.

© 2004 IEEE

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  1. H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Feedforward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gbit/s over 45 km installed single mode fiber", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) 2001, vol. 6, 2001, pp. 68-69.
  2. P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Demonstration of a feed-forward PMD compensation technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 161 -163, 2002.
  3. P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 568-570, 2001.
  4. H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s and 80 Gbit/s using a 3-dimensional DOP evaluation for feedback", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2001, vol. 4, 2001, pp. PD27-1-PD27-3.
  5. M. W. Chbat, J.-P. Soignb, T. Fuerst, J. T. Anthony, S. Lanne, H. Fevrier, B. M. Desthieux, A. H. Bush and D. Penninckx, "Long term field demonstration of optical PMD compensation on an installed OC-192 link", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Int. Conf. Integrated Optics (OFC/IOOC) 1999, 1999, pp. PD12/1-PD12/3.
  6. F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert and H. Bulow, "Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2001, vol. 2, 2001, pp. Tu5-1 -TuP5-3.
  7. F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) 1998, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 529-530.
  8. F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Int. Conf. Integrated Optics (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 1, 1999, pp. 275-278.
  9. S. Lanne, W. Idler, J.-P. Thiery and J.-P. Hamaide, "Fully automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 40-41, 2002.
  10. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L.-S. Yan, J. E. McGeehan, Y. Q. Shi, A. E. Willner and S. Yao, "Wide-dynamic-range DGD monitoring by partial optical signal spectrum DOP measurement", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 924-926.
  11. T. Takahashi, T. Imai and M. Aiki, "Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 348-349, 1994.
  12. G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, "Polarization-mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10-Gbit/s NRZ transmission experiments", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 1998, 1998, pp. 117-119.
  13. R. Noe, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Gungener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1602-1616, 1999.
  14. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.-W. Song, A. B. Sahin, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring in WDM systems for NRZ data using a chromatic-dispersion-regenerated clock", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 200-202.
  15. H. Y. Pua, K. Peddanarappagari, B. Zhu, C. Allen, K. Demarest and R. Hui, "An adaptive first-order polarization-mode dispersion compensation system aided by polarization scrambling: theory and demonstration", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 832-841, 2000.
  16. F. Buchali, W. Baumert, H. Bulow and J. Poirrier, "A 40 Gb/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 202-203.
  17. B. W. Hakki, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 121-123, 1997.
  18. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee and A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones", in Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001, 2001, pp. 561- 563.
  19. R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wust and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 229-235, 2002.
  20. N. Kikuchi, "Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 480-486, 2001.
  21. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, J. E. McGeehan and A. E. Willner, "Dependence of DOP-based DGD monitors on the optical power spectrum of equal-pulse-width data formats", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) 2003, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 112-114.
  22. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. New York: Pergamon, 1975, ch. 10.
  23. S. C. Rashleigh and R. Ulrich, "Polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers", Optics Letters, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 60-62, 1978.
  24. S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-1, no. 2, pp. 312-331, 1983.
  25. F. Bruyère, "Impact of first and second order PMD in optical digital transmission systems", Opt. Fiber Technol., no. 2, pp. 269-280, 1996.
  26. A. Hodzic, B. Konrad and K. Petermann, "Alternative modulation formats in N × 40 Gb/s WDM standard fiber RZ-transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 598-607, 2002.
  27. R. Ohhira, D. Ogasahara and T. Ono, "Novel RZ signal format with alternate-chirp for suppression of nonlinear degradation in 40 Gb/s based WDM", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) 2001, vol. 3, 2001, pp. WM2-1-WM2-3.
  28. H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon and R. M. Jopson, "Jones matrix for second order polarization mode dispersion", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 19-21, Jan. 2000.

Other (28)

H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Feedforward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gbit/s over 45 km installed single mode fiber", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) 2001, vol. 6, 2001, pp. 68-69.

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Demonstration of a feed-forward PMD compensation technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 161 -163, 2002.

P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini and H. A. Haus, "Real-time principal state characterization for use in PMD compensators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 568-570, 2001.

H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber and A. Ehrhardt, "Automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s and 80 Gbit/s using a 3-dimensional DOP evaluation for feedback", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2001, vol. 4, 2001, pp. PD27-1-PD27-3.

M. W. Chbat, J.-P. Soignb, T. Fuerst, J. T. Anthony, S. Lanne, H. Fevrier, B. M. Desthieux, A. H. Bush and D. Penninckx, "Long term field demonstration of optical PMD compensation on an installed OC-192 link", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Int. Conf. Integrated Optics (OFC/IOOC) 1999, 1999, pp. PD12/1-PD12/3.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert and H. Bulow, "Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2001, vol. 2, 2001, pp. Tu5-1 -TuP5-3.

F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) 1998, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 529-530.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere and D. Penninckx, "Simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Int. Conf. Integrated Optics (OFC/IOOC) 1999, vol. 1, 1999, pp. 275-278.

S. Lanne, W. Idler, J.-P. Thiery and J.-P. Hamaide, "Fully automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 40-41, 2002.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L.-S. Yan, J. E. McGeehan, Y. Q. Shi, A. E. Willner and S. Yao, "Wide-dynamic-range DGD monitoring by partial optical signal spectrum DOP measurement", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 924-926.

T. Takahashi, T. Imai and M. Aiki, "Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 348-349, 1994.

G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, "Polarization-mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10-Gbit/s NRZ transmission experiments", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 1998, 1998, pp. 117-119.

R. Noe, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Gungener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1602-1616, 1999.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.-W. Song, A. B. Sahin, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring in WDM systems for NRZ data using a chromatic-dispersion-regenerated clock", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 200-202.

H. Y. Pua, K. Peddanarappagari, B. Zhu, C. Allen, K. Demarest and R. Hui, "An adaptive first-order polarization-mode dispersion compensation system aided by polarization scrambling: theory and demonstration", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 832-841, 2000.

F. Buchali, W. Baumert, H. Bulow and J. Poirrier, "A 40 Gb/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 2002, pp. 202-203.

B. W. Hakki, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 121-123, 1997.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee and A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones", in Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001, 2001, pp. 561- 563.

R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wust and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 229-235, 2002.

N. Kikuchi, "Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 480-486, 2001.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, J. E. McGeehan and A. E. Willner, "Dependence of DOP-based DGD monitors on the optical power spectrum of equal-pulse-width data formats", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) 2003, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 112-114.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. New York: Pergamon, 1975, ch. 10.

S. C. Rashleigh and R. Ulrich, "Polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers", Optics Letters, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 60-62, 1978.

S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-1, no. 2, pp. 312-331, 1983.

F. Bruyère, "Impact of first and second order PMD in optical digital transmission systems", Opt. Fiber Technol., no. 2, pp. 269-280, 1996.

A. Hodzic, B. Konrad and K. Petermann, "Alternative modulation formats in N × 40 Gb/s WDM standard fiber RZ-transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 598-607, 2002.

R. Ohhira, D. Ogasahara and T. Ono, "Novel RZ signal format with alternate-chirp for suppression of nonlinear degradation in 40 Gb/s based WDM", in Conf. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) 2001, vol. 3, 2001, pp. WM2-1-WM2-3.

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon and R. M. Jopson, "Jones matrix for second order polarization mode dispersion", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 19-21, Jan. 2000.

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