Abstract

It is shown that long-period gratings (LPGs) can be written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber without physical deformation by using the glass structure change. LPGs with different grating periods are made by the glass structure change induced by arc discharge. We find that the resonance wavelengths decrease with increasing the grating period in contrast with LPGs fabricated in conventional fibers. The second-order core mode begins to be supported in the long-wavelength region, and two resonance peaks appear there. This is due to a large increase of the index difference between the pure-silica core and the holey cladding against wavelength.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St and J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers: An endless variety", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84-C, no. 5, pp. 585-592, May 2001.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1191-1193, June 1993.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 73-80, July 1994.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 2940-2945, Sept. 1995.

I. Riant and B. Poumellec, "Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 16, pp. 1603-1604, Aug. 1998.

K. Morishita, "Refractive-index changes in optical fibers by local heat treatments", in Proc. Japan-China Joint Meeting Optical Fiber Science Electromagnetic Theory, Osaka, Japan,Dec. 2000, pp. 49-52.

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake and T. Fujihara, "Long-period fiber gratings made by glass structure variations by heat treatments", in Proc. 2001 Electronics Soc. Conf. IEICE , vol. 1, Sept. 2001, p. 232.

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan and Y. Miyake, "Refractive-index changes and long-period fiber gratings made by rapid solidification", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Fiber Optical Passive Components, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.,June 5-6 2002, pp. 98-103.

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake and T. Fujihara, "Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change", IEICE Trans. Electron, vol. E86-C, no. 8, pp. 1749-1758, Aug. 2003 .

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1460-1462, Nov. 1999.

N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen and J. Zagari, "Bragg gratings in air-silica structured fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 233-235, Feb. 2003.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks and P. St. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1013 -1015, June 2002.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass, New York: American Institute of Physics, 1986, ch. 1 and 2.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 15, pp. 1329-1342, Aug. 1997.

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