Abstract

This paper studies a novel technique for enhancing the single mode properties of large-area oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). It utilizes a nonplanar shadow masked epitaxial growth to spatially detune part of the upper Bragg stack from the lower stack. The resulting mirror reflectivity modulation is used to enhance the discrimination between the lateral modes. Compared to other techniques, this method results in a larger difference in threshold gain between the lateral modes. We have developed a quasi-three-dimensional (3-D) optical model to analyze this laser. Simulation results indicate that even a small curvature can enhance the mode discrimination,and single mode operation may be possible for VCSEL diameters much greater than 2 µm.

© 2004 IEEE

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  1. W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear and G. R. Hadley, "Design, fabrication and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, pp. 1810-1824, 1997.
  2. G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. Warren, K. Choquette, J. Scott and S. Corzine, "Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, pp. 607-616, 1996.
  3. Y. Wu, C. Chang-Hasnain and R. Nabiev, "Single mode emission from a passive-antiguide-region vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1861-1863, 1993.
  4. D. Zhou and L. Mawst, "Simplied-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 13, pp. 1659-1661, 2000.
  5. B. J. Koch, J. R. Leger, A. Gopinath, Z. Wang and R. Morgan, "Single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser by graded index lens spatial filtering", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, no. 18, pp. 2359-2361, 1997 .
  6. S.-H. Park, Y. Park, H. Jeon, S. M. Hwang and S. H. Nam, "Single transverse mode operation in a microlensed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser", in Proc. CLEO, 2002, pp. 467-468.
  7. H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic and A. Larsson, "Single-mode power dependence on surface relief size for mode-stabilized oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1129-1131, 2000.
  8. J. A. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. S. Gustavsson and A. Larsson, "Numerical optimization of the single fundamental mode output from a surface modified vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, pp. 108-117, 2001.
  9. G. Peake, L. Zhang, N. Li, A. Sarangan, C. Wilson, R. Shul and S. Hersee, "Micromachined, reusable shadow mask for integrated optical elements grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition", J. Vacuum Sci. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 2070-2073, 1999 .
  10. G. R. Hadley, "Effective index model for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 1483-1485, 1995.
  11. S. Adachi, Physical Properties of II-V Semiconductor Compounds, New York: Wiley, 1992.

Other (11)

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear and G. R. Hadley, "Design, fabrication and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, pp. 1810-1824, 1997.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. Warren, K. Choquette, J. Scott and S. Corzine, "Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, pp. 607-616, 1996.

Y. Wu, C. Chang-Hasnain and R. Nabiev, "Single mode emission from a passive-antiguide-region vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1861-1863, 1993.

D. Zhou and L. Mawst, "Simplied-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 13, pp. 1659-1661, 2000.

B. J. Koch, J. R. Leger, A. Gopinath, Z. Wang and R. Morgan, "Single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser by graded index lens spatial filtering", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, no. 18, pp. 2359-2361, 1997 .

S.-H. Park, Y. Park, H. Jeon, S. M. Hwang and S. H. Nam, "Single transverse mode operation in a microlensed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser", in Proc. CLEO, 2002, pp. 467-468.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic and A. Larsson, "Single-mode power dependence on surface relief size for mode-stabilized oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1129-1131, 2000.

J. A. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. S. Gustavsson and A. Larsson, "Numerical optimization of the single fundamental mode output from a surface modified vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, pp. 108-117, 2001.

G. Peake, L. Zhang, N. Li, A. Sarangan, C. Wilson, R. Shul and S. Hersee, "Micromachined, reusable shadow mask for integrated optical elements grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition", J. Vacuum Sci. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 2070-2073, 1999 .

G. R. Hadley, "Effective index model for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 1483-1485, 1995.

S. Adachi, Physical Properties of II-V Semiconductor Compounds, New York: Wiley, 1992.

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