Abstract

Highly efficient resonantly enhanced modulators on X-cut LiNbO3 are investigated through the use of numerical optimization. We describe the optimization technique and present a new design trend relating the link-gain efficiency of optical radio systems that employ external modulation to the choice of modulator electrode geometric dimensions, especially the electrode gap. Using this optimization technique, resonant-type modulators with link gain enhancement up to 6 dB are achievable while maintaining excellent return loss at a resonant frequency of 1.8 GHz. The characteristics of both the optical waveguide and the coplanar electrode are characterized by finite-element simulation.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Other (19)

A. Mitchell, M. Lech, R. B. Waterhouse and D. M. Kokotoff, "Automatic search for efficient broadband microstrip patch antennas", in Proc. Asia-Pacific Microwave Conf. (APMC) , vol. 3, 2001, pp. 1251-1254.

L. Ingber, "Adaptive simulated annealing (ASA): Lessons learned", Control Cybern., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 33-54, 1996.

L. Ingber and B. Rosen, "Genetic algorithms and very fast simulated reannealing: A comparison", Math. Comput. Model., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 87-100, 1992.

Y. Visagathilagar, A. Mitchell and M. Austin, "General theoretical model for resonantly enhanced optical modulators", in Proc. 8th OptoElectronics Communications Conf. (OEC), vol. 23, 2003, pp. 337-338.

J. K. A. Everard and K. Cheng, "High performance direct coupled bandpass filters on coplanar waveguide", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, pp. 1568-1572, Sept. 1993.

J. Kondo, A. Kondo, K. Aoki, S. Takatsuji, O. Mitomi, M. Imaeda, Y. Kozuka and M. Minakata, "Low-drive-voltage 40 Gb/s modulator on X-cut LiNbO3 wafer", in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC '01), vol. 3, 2001, pp. 334-335.

S. Oikawa, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Matsuo and M. Izutsu, "Double-stub structure for resonant-type optical modulators using 20-µm -thick electrode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 221 -223, Feb. 2003.

M. Sugiyama, M. Doi, S. Taniguchi, T. Nakazawa and H. Onaka, "Driver-less 40 Gb/s LiNbO3 modulator with sub-1 V drive voltage", in Tech. Dig. Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, vol. 70, 2002, pp. FB62- FB64.

Y. Visagathilagar, A. Mitchell and R. Waterhouse, "Fabry-Pérot type resonantly enhanced Mach-Zehnder modulator", in Tech. Dig. Int. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics (MWP'99), vol. 1, 1999,Cat. 99EX301,. pp. 17-20.

S. Hum, M. Okoniewski and R. Davies, "Modulator structures for radio-on-fiber applications", in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Microwaves, Radar Wireless Communications , vol. 1, 2002, pp. 37-40.

A. Lindsay, G. Knight and S. Winnall, "Photonic mixers for wide bandwidth RF receiver applications", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2311-2317, Sept. 1995.

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, New York: Wiley, 1993.

A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, C. Lim, R. Waterhouse and D. Castleford, "Fiber networks for wireless applications", in Proc. 2000 IEEE 13th Annu. Meeting Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. (LEOS 2000), vol. 1, 2000, pp. 35-36.

G. Gopalakrishnan and W. Burns, "Performance and modeling of resonantly enhanced LiNbO3 modulators for low-loss analog fiber-optic links", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 42, pp. 2650-2656, Dec. 1994.

T. Kawanishi, S. Oikawa, K. Higuma, Y. Matsuo and M. Izutsu, "LiNbO3 resonant-type optical modulator with double-stub structure", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 20, pp. 1277-1246, 2001.

T. Kawanishi, Y. Matsuo, M. Izutsu, S. Oikawa and K. Higuma, "Resonant-type optical modulator with double-stub structure", in Proc. IEEE 14th Annu. Meeting Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. 2001 (LEOS 2001), vol. 1, 2001, pp. 184-185.

T. Kawanishi, S. Oikawa, K. Higuma, M. Sasaki and M. Izutsu, "Design of LiNbO3 optical modulator with an asymmetric resonant structure", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E85-C, no. 1, pp. 150-155, 2002 .

T. Kawanishi, Y. Matsuo, M. Izutsu, S. Oikawa and K. Higuma, "Reflection-type Mach-Zehnder LiNbO3 optical modulator with double-stub structure", in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. Annu. Meeting, vol. 2, 2002, pp. 833-834.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien and D. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, pp. 69-82, Jan.-Feb. 2000.

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