Abstract

In a lightwave circuit using a strongly confined waveguide, higher order leaky modes must be suppressed to obtain ideal characteristics, especially in arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). Propagation loss for higher order leaky modes in InP-based deep-ridge waveguides was investigated by simulation and experiment. A highly sensitive loss measurement method based on optical low-coherence reflectometry was used to determine the loss, and the relationship between the loss for the higher order mode and AWG crosstalk was investigated. Optimizing the deep-ridge waveguide parameters, especially the core thickness, the refractive index of the core, and the etch depth under the core, significantly reduced the propagation loss for the higher order leaky mode. The effective elimination of the higher order modes will enable fabrication of low-crosstalk AWG routers.

© 2004 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides", Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 2, pp. 211-233, 1993.

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Other (18)

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, pp. 236-250, Mar./Apr. 1996.

C. van Dam, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. K. Smit and B. H. Verbeek, "Elimination of ghost images in the response of PHASAR-demultiplexers", in Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics , Stockholm, Sweden, 1997, pp. 268-271.

A. Vukovic, P. Sewell, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson and P. C. Kendall, "Singularity-corrected spectral index method", Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc.-Optoelectron., vol. 145, pp. 59-64, 1998.

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita and A. Himeno, "400-channel 25-GHz spacing arrayed-waveguide grating covering a full range of C-and L-bands", in Proc. OFC2001, vol. 3, 2001.

Y. Hibino, "High contrast waveguide devices", in Proc. OFC2001 , vol. 3, 2001.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman and M. K. Smit, "Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1008-1010, 1994.

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis and P.-T. Ho, "Compact microring notch filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 398-400, Apr. 2000 .

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata and Y. Yoshikuni, "Polarization-insensitive semiconductor arrayed waveguide grating integrated with spotsize converter", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1055-1056, 2000.

M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Kadota and Y. Yoshikuni, "Polarization independent semiconductor arrayed waveguide gratings using a deep-ridge waveguide structure", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E81-C, pp. 1195-1204, Aug. 1998.

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller and U. Koren, "Large electroabsorption effect in GaInAs/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) optical modulator grown by OMVPE", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 840-841, 1988.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden and T. van Dongen, "Spectral behavior of InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference devices", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, 1 (LEOS '93), 1993, pp. 617-618.

K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni and H. Ishii, "Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 251-253, Feb. 1996.

J. A. P. da Silva, C. R. Prola and J. P. von der Weid, "Optical low coherence reflectometry for characterization of optical devices", in Proc. Microwave Optoelectronics Conference , vol. 2, 1995, pp. 596-600.

T. Hirono, M. Kohtoku, Y. Yoshikuni, W. W. Lui and K. Yokoyama, "Optimized offset to eliminate first-order mode excitation at the junction of straight and curved multimode waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 982 -984, July 1998.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1407-1412, Sept./Oct. 1999.

C. Vazquez, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo and J. M. S. Pena, "Multimode interference filter to solve degradation on coupler common-mode rejection", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, 1998. (LEOS '98), vol. 1, 1998, pp. 326-327.

M. Kohtoku, Y. Shibata and Y. Yoshikuni, "Evaluation of the rejection ratio of an MMI-based higher order mode filter using optical low-coherence reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 968 -970, July 2002.

S. Oku, Y. Shibata and K. Ochiai, "Controlled beam dry etching of InP by using Br2-N2 gas", J. Electron. Mater., vol. 25, pp. 585-591, 1996.

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