Abstract

Development of a serially multiplexed fiber-optic acoustic emission (AE) sensor is described. The sensor detects AE events in real time at two different points along the length of an optical fiber. The time-domain waveform contains signals from the two locations, and a method is introduced for identification of the signals. Detection and identification of signals along a single data stream reduces the data-acquisition rigor and provides for rapid real-time damage location detection in materials. The sensor consists of two optical fiber coils along an arbitrary length in a Michelson interferometer arrangement. The formulations involve the methodology for tagging of the time-domain signals. The process leads to matching of the arrival times in the waveform to the individual coils along the length of the optical fiber. The waveform is detected at the quadrature point for maximum sensitivity. A bias is created through differentiation and superposition of the waveform to accomplish signal identification. The experimental program involved proof of concept tests by way of damage location detection along the lengths of individual composite rods. Conventional piezoelectric transducers were also employed for comparison of results.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol.

T. A. Tran, W. V. Miller III, K. A. Murphy, A. M. Vengsarkar and R. O. Claus, "Stabilized extrinsic fiber-optic Fizeau sensor for surface acoustic wave detection", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1499-1505, Oct. 1992.

A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, X. Bao and T. W. Bremner, "Spatial resolution enhancement of a Brillouin-distributed sensor using a novel signal processing method", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1179-1183, July 1999 .

Other

Y. Zhao and F. Ansari, "Quasidistributed fiber-optic strain sensor: Principle and experiment", Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 19, pp. 3176 -3181, 2001.

H. Takara, "High-speed optical time-division-multiplexed signal generation", Optical Quantum Electron., vol. 32, pp. 795-810, 2001.

C. McGarrity, B. C. B. Chu and D. A. Jackson, "Multiplexing of Michelson interferometer sensors in a matrix array topology", Appl. Optics, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1262-1268, 1995.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim and H. J. Shaw, "Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors", J. Lightwave Technology, vol. LT-3, pp. 1062-1072, May 1985.

Y. Pan, E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence-gated imaging of biological tissues", J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, pp. 1029-1034, Dec. 1996.

H. L. Chen, Z. Sami and H. V. GangaRao, "Identifying damages in stressed aramid FRP bars using acoustic emission", Dynamic Characterization Advanced Materials , vol. ASME NCA-16/AMD-172, 1993.

S. T. Shih, "Wide-band polarization-insensitive fiber optic acoustic sensors", Opt. Eng., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 968-976, 1998.

Z. Chen and F. Ansari, "Fiber optic acoustic emission crack sensor for large structures", J. Structure Control, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 119-129, 2000.

K. Liu, S. M. Ferguson and R. M. Measures, "Fiber optic interferometric sensor for the detection of acoustic emission within composite materials", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 22, pp. 1255-1257, 1990.

X. Gu, Z. Chen and F. Ansari, "Embedded fiber optic crack sensor for reinforced concrete structures", ACI Structural J., vol. 97, pp. 468-476, May-June 2000.

A. Mirmiran, M. Shahawy and H. EI. Echary, "Acoustic emission monitoring of hybrid FRP-concrete columns", ASCE J. Eng. Mechanics, pp. 899-905, Aug. 1999 .

C. Ouyang, E. Landis and S. P. Shah, "Damage assessment in concrete using acoustic emission, in nondestructive testing of concrete elements and structures", ASCE, SP, pp. 13-24, 1993.

A. K. Maji, D. Satapathi and T. Kratochvil, "Acoustic emission source location using lamb wave modes", ASCE J. Eng. Mechanics, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 154-161, 1997.

M. Ohtsu, "Determination of crack orientation by acoustic emission", Mater. Eval., vol. 45, pp. 1070-1075, 1986.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, Jr., J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh and R. G. Priest, "Optical fiber sensor technology", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, pp. 626-664, Apr. 1982.

T. K. Lim, Y. Zhou, Y. Lin, Y. M. Yip and Y. L. Lam, "Fiber optic acoustic hydrophone with double Mach-Zehnder interferometers for optical path length compensation", Opt.s Commun., vol. 159, no. 4-6, 15, pp. 301-308, Jan. 1999 .

S. G. Pierce, W. R. Philp, A. Gachagan, A. McNab, G. Hayward and B. Culshaw, "Optical fibers as ultrasonic sensors", Appl. Opt., vol. 35, no. 25, pp. :5191-5197, 1996.

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