Abstract

We propose a pair of related new techniques for measuring the modal power distribution (MPD) of light launched into a multimode fiber (MMF). For modern applications involving laser launches, our method has several potential advantages over ray optics-based methods such as [1] and recent extensions of them [2]. Instead of relying on a time-averaged measurement of near-field intensity with a CCD camera to spatially resolve the launched power, our method uses a specially designed probe fiber to temporally resolve the launched power. If the source can be modulated fast enough (as is necessary for 10 Gbps serial transmission, for instance), the measurement is straightforward and the calculation of the MPD is trivial. For slower sources,a more involved measurement and inversion algorithm are required.

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Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (30)

"Mode Power Distribution and Mode Transfer Function Measurement ITM-3", 1995.

J. S. Abbott, "Modal Excitation of Optical Fibers: Estimating the Modal Power Distribution", 1998.TIA 2.2 Draft Notes.

"Fiber Channel Physical Interfaces (FC-PI)", INCITS 352-2002,

"Gigabit Ethernet", IEEE Std 802.3-1998,

D. G. Cunningham and W. G. Lane, Gigabit Ethernet Networking, New York: Macmillan Technical, 1999.

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham and M. C. Nowell, "Influence of restricted mode excitation on bandwidth of multimode fiber links", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 534-536, 1998.

D. Rittich, "Practicability of determining the modal power distribution by measured near and far fields", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-3, pp. 652-659, 1985.

"Launched Power Distribution Measurement Procedure for Graded-Index Multimode Fiber Transmitters",

"10 Gigabit Ethernet", IEEE Std 802.3ae, 2002.

"Detail Specification for 850-nm Laser-Optimized, 50-µ m Core Diameter/125-µ m Cladding Diameter Class Ia Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers", TIA-492AAAC, 2002.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Academic Press, 1991 .

R. Olshansky, "Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 935-945, Apr. 1975.

S. Kawakami and H. Tanji, "Evolution of power distribution in graded-index fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 100-102, 1983.

S. Berdagué and P. Facq, "Mode division multiplexing in optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1950 -1955, 1982.

P. Facq and P. Fournet, "Observation of tubular modes in mulitmode graded-index optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 648-650, 1980.

D. Gloge and E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1563-1578, 1973 .

J. W. Fleming, "Material dispersion in lightguide glasses", Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 326-328, 1978 .

M. J. Buckler, "Differential mode delay measurements using single mode fiber selective excitation", in Proc. Conf. Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Braunschweig, Germany,June 1980, pp. 224-227.

A. R. Mickelson and M. Eriksrud, "Mode-dependent attenuation in optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 1282-1290, 1983 .

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, London: Chapman and Hall, 1983.

A. J. Ritger, "Use of differential mode delay in qualifying multi-mode optical fiber for 10 Gbps operation", in 6th Optical Fiber Measurement Conf. Proc., Sept. 2001.

S. E. Golowich, P. F. Kolesar, A. J. Ritger and P. Pepeljugoski, "Modeling and simulations for 10 Gb multimode optical fiber link component specifications", in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibit. Tech. Dig. Post Conf. Edition, vol. 3, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, pp. WDD57-1 -WDD57-3.

P. Pepeljugoski and S. E. Golowich, "Measurements and simulations of intersymbol interference penalty in new high speed 50 µ m multimode fiber links operating at 10 Gb/s", in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibit. Tech. Dig. Post Conf. Edition , vol. 3, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, pp. WDD40-1-WDD40-3.

T. A. Lenahan, "Calculation of modes in an optical fiber using the finite element method and EISPACK", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2663-2694, 1983.

Port Mathematical Subroutine Library. [Online]. Available: http://www.bell-labs.com/project/PORT/

G. Wahba, Spline Models for Observational Data, SIAM, PA: 1990.

M. P. Wand and M. C. Jones, Kernel Smoothing Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1995,vol. 60.

B. W. Silverman, Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1986.

S. Piazzola and G. de Marchis, "Analytic relations between modal power distribution and near-field intensiy in graded-index fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 721-722, 1979.

O. G. Leminger and G. K. Grau, "Nearfield-intensity and modal power distribution in multimode graded-index fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 678-679, 1980.

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