Abstract

Optical time domain reflectometery (OTDR) is one of the most used measurement techniques in the characterization of optical fiber links. In this paper, we present a thorough investigation of an OTDR using a Peltier cooled photon-counting detector at 1.55 um. Due to its superior spatial resolution and the absence of classical dead-zones, it is well suited for detailed, high resolution analysis of problem zones. We give a detailed analysis of its performance,and also demonstrate that a polarization-sensitive photon-counting OTDR can be used to extract local birefringences too large to be measured with standard P-OTDRs.

© 2004 IEEE

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  1. M. K. Barnoski and S. M. Jensen, "Fiber waveguides: A novel technique for investigation attenuation characteristics", Appl. Opt., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2112-2115, 1976.
  2. P. Healey, "Multichannel photon-counting backscatter measurements on monomode fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 751-752, 1981.
  3. P. Healey, "Optical time domain reflectometery-A performance comparison of the analogue and photon counting techniques", Opt. Quant. Electron., vol. 16, pp. 267-276, 1984.
  4. F. Scholder, J.-D. Gautier, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength", Opt. Comm., vol. 213, pp. 57-61, 2002.
  5. A. Lacaita, P. A. Francese and S. D. Cova, "Single-photon optical-time-domain reflectometer at 1.3 um with 5-cm resolution and high sensitivity", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1110-1112, 1993.
  6. B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea and J. C. Campbell, "1.52 um room-temperature photon-counting optical time domain reflectometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 194-196, 1985.
  7. F. Scholder, A. Fougères, J.-D. Gautier, C. Barreiro, A. Haldimann, H. de Riedmatten, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Photon-counting OTDR at telecom wavelength: High-resolution and long-distance measurements", in Proc. Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2002, NIST Spec. Publ. 988, 2002, pp. 157-160.
  8. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, Upper Saddle River, NJ: HP Professionals Books, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
  9. D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 1967-1981, 2001.
  10. A. Whilshire, "Digital time domain fault analysis techniques", in Proc. Int. Conf. on Measurements for Telecommunication Transmission Systems, 1985, pp. 70-73.
  11. K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, "Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 982-987, July 1992 .
  12. G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa and S. D. Cova, "Effects of trap levels in single-photon optical time-domain reflectometry: Evaluation and correction", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 10, pp. 1398-1402, Oct. 1992.
  13. F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Polarization mode dispersion characterization of single-mode optical fiber using backscattering technique", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1832-1843, Oct. 1998.
  14. F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Beat length characterization based on backscattering analysis in randomly perturbed single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1172-1178, July 1999 .
  15. B. Huttner, B. Gisin and N. Gisin, "Distributed PMD measurement with a polarization OTDR in optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1843-1848, 1999.
  16. M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, P. Oberson, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, C. Vinegoni and N. Gisin, "Analysis of the polarization evolution in a ribbon cable using high resolution coherent OFDR", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 145 -147, Feb. 2001.
  17. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano and T. Tambosso, "Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 962-964, 2001.
  18. M. Wegmuller, M. Legré and N. Gisin, "Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 828-835, May 2002.
  19. B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy and J. P. von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, Oct. 1998.

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, "Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 982-987, July 1992 .

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré and N. Gisin, "Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 828-835, May 2002.

F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Beat length characterization based on backscattering analysis in randomly perturbed single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1172-1178, July 1999 .

B. Huttner, B. Gisin and N. Gisin, "Distributed PMD measurement with a polarization OTDR in optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1843-1848, 1999.

F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Polarization mode dispersion characterization of single-mode optical fiber using backscattering technique", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1832-1843, Oct. 1998.

Other (14)

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy and J. P. von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, Oct. 1998.

G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa and S. D. Cova, "Effects of trap levels in single-photon optical time-domain reflectometry: Evaluation and correction", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 10, pp. 1398-1402, Oct. 1992.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, P. Oberson, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, C. Vinegoni and N. Gisin, "Analysis of the polarization evolution in a ribbon cable using high resolution coherent OFDR", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 145 -147, Feb. 2001.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano and T. Tambosso, "Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 962-964, 2001.

M. K. Barnoski and S. M. Jensen, "Fiber waveguides: A novel technique for investigation attenuation characteristics", Appl. Opt., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2112-2115, 1976.

P. Healey, "Multichannel photon-counting backscatter measurements on monomode fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 751-752, 1981.

P. Healey, "Optical time domain reflectometery-A performance comparison of the analogue and photon counting techniques", Opt. Quant. Electron., vol. 16, pp. 267-276, 1984.

F. Scholder, J.-D. Gautier, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength", Opt. Comm., vol. 213, pp. 57-61, 2002.

A. Lacaita, P. A. Francese and S. D. Cova, "Single-photon optical-time-domain reflectometer at 1.3 um with 5-cm resolution and high sensitivity", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1110-1112, 1993.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea and J. C. Campbell, "1.52 um room-temperature photon-counting optical time domain reflectometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 194-196, 1985.

F. Scholder, A. Fougères, J.-D. Gautier, C. Barreiro, A. Haldimann, H. de Riedmatten, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Photon-counting OTDR at telecom wavelength: High-resolution and long-distance measurements", in Proc. Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2002, NIST Spec. Publ. 988, 2002, pp. 157-160.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, Upper Saddle River, NJ: HP Professionals Books, Prentice-Hall, 1998.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 1967-1981, 2001.

A. Whilshire, "Digital time domain fault analysis techniques", in Proc. Int. Conf. on Measurements for Telecommunication Transmission Systems, 1985, pp. 70-73.

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