Abstract

Optical time domain reflectometery (OTDR) is one of the most used measurement techniques in the characterization of optical fiber links. In this paper, we present a thorough investigation of an OTDR using a Peltier cooled photon-counting detector at 1.55 um. Due to its superior spatial resolution and the absence of classical dead-zones, it is well suited for detailed, high resolution analysis of problem zones. We give a detailed analysis of its performance,and also demonstrate that a polarization-sensitive photon-counting OTDR can be used to extract local birefringences too large to be measured with standard P-OTDRs.

© 2004 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M. K. Barnoski and S. M. Jensen, "Fiber waveguides: A novel technique for investigation attenuation characteristics", Appl. Opt., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2112-2115, 1976.
  2. P. Healey, "Multichannel photon-counting backscatter measurements on monomode fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 751-752, 1981.
  3. P. Healey, "Optical time domain reflectometery-A performance comparison of the analogue and photon counting techniques", Opt. Quant. Electron., vol. 16, pp. 267-276, 1984.
  4. F. Scholder, J.-D. Gautier, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength", Opt. Comm., vol. 213, pp. 57-61, 2002.
  5. A. Lacaita, P. A. Francese and S. D. Cova, "Single-photon optical-time-domain reflectometer at 1.3 um with 5-cm resolution and high sensitivity", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1110-1112, 1993.
  6. B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea and J. C. Campbell, "1.52 um room-temperature photon-counting optical time domain reflectometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 194-196, 1985.
  7. F. Scholder, A. Fougères, J.-D. Gautier, C. Barreiro, A. Haldimann, H. de Riedmatten, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Photon-counting OTDR at telecom wavelength: High-resolution and long-distance measurements", in Proc. Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2002, NIST Spec. Publ. 988, 2002, pp. 157-160.
  8. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, Upper Saddle River, NJ: HP Professionals Books, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
  9. D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 1967-1981, 2001.
  10. A. Whilshire, "Digital time domain fault analysis techniques", in Proc. Int. Conf. on Measurements for Telecommunication Transmission Systems, 1985, pp. 70-73.
  11. K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, "Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 982-987, July 1992 .
  12. G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa and S. D. Cova, "Effects of trap levels in single-photon optical time-domain reflectometry: Evaluation and correction", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 10, pp. 1398-1402, Oct. 1992.
  13. F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Polarization mode dispersion characterization of single-mode optical fiber using backscattering technique", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1832-1843, Oct. 1998.
  14. F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Beat length characterization based on backscattering analysis in randomly perturbed single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1172-1178, July 1999 .
  15. B. Huttner, B. Gisin and N. Gisin, "Distributed PMD measurement with a polarization OTDR in optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1843-1848, 1999.
  16. M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, P. Oberson, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, C. Vinegoni and N. Gisin, "Analysis of the polarization evolution in a ribbon cable using high resolution coherent OFDR", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 145 -147, Feb. 2001.
  17. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano and T. Tambosso, "Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 962-964, 2001.
  18. M. Wegmuller, M. Legré and N. Gisin, "Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 828-835, May 2002.
  19. B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy and J. P. von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, Oct. 1998.

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Polarization mode dispersion characterization of single-mode optical fiber using backscattering technique", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1832-1843, Oct. 1998.

F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, "Beat length characterization based on backscattering analysis in randomly perturbed single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1172-1178, July 1999 .

B. Huttner, B. Gisin and N. Gisin, "Distributed PMD measurement with a polarization OTDR in optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1843-1848, 1999.

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, "Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 982-987, July 1992 .

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré and N. Gisin, "Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 828-835, May 2002.

Other (14)

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy and J. P. von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, Oct. 1998.

G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa and S. D. Cova, "Effects of trap levels in single-photon optical time-domain reflectometry: Evaluation and correction", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 10, pp. 1398-1402, Oct. 1992.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, P. Oberson, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, C. Vinegoni and N. Gisin, "Analysis of the polarization evolution in a ribbon cable using high resolution coherent OFDR", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 145 -147, Feb. 2001.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano and T. Tambosso, "Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 962-964, 2001.

M. K. Barnoski and S. M. Jensen, "Fiber waveguides: A novel technique for investigation attenuation characteristics", Appl. Opt., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2112-2115, 1976.

P. Healey, "Multichannel photon-counting backscatter measurements on monomode fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 751-752, 1981.

P. Healey, "Optical time domain reflectometery-A performance comparison of the analogue and photon counting techniques", Opt. Quant. Electron., vol. 16, pp. 267-276, 1984.

F. Scholder, J.-D. Gautier, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Long-distance OTDR using photon counting and large detection gates at telecom wavelength", Opt. Comm., vol. 213, pp. 57-61, 2002.

A. Lacaita, P. A. Francese and S. D. Cova, "Single-photon optical-time-domain reflectometer at 1.3 um with 5-cm resolution and high sensitivity", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1110-1112, 1993.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea and J. C. Campbell, "1.52 um room-temperature photon-counting optical time domain reflectometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 194-196, 1985.

F. Scholder, A. Fougères, J.-D. Gautier, C. Barreiro, A. Haldimann, H. de Riedmatten, M. Wegmuller and N. Gisin, "Photon-counting OTDR at telecom wavelength: High-resolution and long-distance measurements", in Proc. Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2002, NIST Spec. Publ. 988, 2002, pp. 157-160.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, Upper Saddle River, NJ: HP Professionals Books, Prentice-Hall, 1998.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 1967-1981, 2001.

A. Whilshire, "Digital time domain fault analysis techniques", in Proc. Int. Conf. on Measurements for Telecommunication Transmission Systems, 1985, pp. 70-73.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.