Abstract

We study the impact of chromatic dispersion (CD) and first-order polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) on systems using binary differential phase-shift keying (2-DPSK) or quaternary DPSK (4-DPSK) with nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) or return-to-zero (RZ) formats. These signals are received using optical preamplification,interferometric demodulation, and direct detection. We consider the linear propagation regime and compute optical power penalties at fixed bit-error ratio (BER). In order to evaluate the BER precisely taking account amplifier noise, arbitrary pulse shapes, arbitrary optical and electrical filtering,CD, and PMD, we introduce a novel model for DPSK systems and compute the BER using a method recently proposed by Forestieri for on-off keying (OOK) systems. We show that when properly applied,the method yields highly accurate results for DPSK systems. We have found that when either the NRZ or RZ format is used, 2-DPSK exhibits lower power penalties than OOK in the presence of CD and first-order PMD. RZ-2-DPSK, as compared with NRZ-2-DPSK, incurs smaller penalties due to PMD, but offers no advantage in terms of CD. 4-DPSK, as it has twice the symbol duration of OOK or 2-DPSK for a given bit rate, incurs much lower CD and PMD power penalties than either of these techniques. RZ-4-DPSK is especially promising, as it offers CD and PMD penalties significantly smaller than all other techniques,including NRZ-4-DPSK.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

G. Jacobsen, "Performance of DPSK and CPFSK systems with significant post-detection filtering", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1622-1631, Oct. 1993 .

S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Perot filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 370-375, Mar. 1996.

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1493-1503, Nov. 2000.

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser and W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ receivers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1263-1273, 2001.

J. Lee and C. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1224-1229, July 1994.

G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of PMD in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1439-1456, Nov. 1991 .

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (20)

H. Kolgelnik, R. M. Jopson and L. E. Nelson, "Polarization-mode dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunication IVB Systems and Impairments, I. P.Ivan P. Kaminow, and T. Tingye Li, Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2002, pp. 725-861.

A. O. Lima, I. T. Lima, T. Adali and C. R. Menyuk, "Comparison of power penalties due to first-and all-order PMD distortions", presented at the ECOC, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 7.1.2, Sept. 2002.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems, New York: Plenum Press, 1992, pp. 496-503.

S. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences, Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Press, 1982.

O. K. Tonguz and R. E. Wagner, "Equivalence between preamplified direct detection and heterodyne receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 835 -837,

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical method for the BER evaluation in optical systems affected by parametric gain", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 152-154, Feb. 2000 .

P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar and H. Kim, "Impact of filtering on RZ-DPSK reception", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 840-842, June 2003.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, New York: Wiley, 2002.

D. E. Johnson, J. R. Johnson and H. P. Moore, A Handbook of Active Filters, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980.

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1029-1030, Sept. 1986.

M. Kac and A. J. F. Siegert, "On the theory of noise in radio receivers with square law detectors", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 18, pp. 383-397, 1947.

J. E. Mazo and J. Salz, "Probability of error for quadratic detectors", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 44, pp. 2165-2186, 1965.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus and N. Hanik, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1483-1484, Aug. 1999.

H. Nizhizawa, Y. Yamada, Y. Shibata and K. Habara, "10-Gb/s optical DPSK packet receiver proof against large power fluctuation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 733-735, June 1999.

R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission", in Tech. Dig. OFC 2002, Washington, DC, pp. 367- 368.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movagassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 × 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans", in Tech. Dig. Postdeadline Papers, OFC, 2002, pp. FC2.1-FC2.3.

W. Christoph, L. Jochen and R. Werner, "RZ-DQPSK format with high spectral efficiency and high robustness toward fiber nonlinearities", presented at the ECOC, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper 9.6.6, Sept. 2002.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre and W. Idler, "1.6 Tb/s (40 × 40 Gb/s) DPSK transmission with direct detection", presented at the ECOC, Copenhagen, Denmark,Sept. 2002.

A. F. Elrefale, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas and D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 5, pp. 704-709, May 1988.

C. De Angelis, A. Galtarossa, C. Campanile and F. Matera, "Performance evaluation of ASK and DPSK optical coherent systems affected by chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion", J. Opt. Commun., vol. 16, pp. 173-178, May 1995.

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