Abstract

This paper investigates and analyzes the in-band crosstalk generated in the photonic packet synchronizer that consists of a sequence of optical fiber delay lines and 2 × 2 optical switches. This paper shows that the second-order in-band crosstalk is dominant and its contribution is proportional to the square of the number of delay lines. It is found that coherent, partially coherent, and incoherent in-band crosstalk may coexist at the output of the synchronizer, causing the power penalty to vary with the delay time of the main signal. A close-form formula is derived for the mean and variance of the beating noise between the main signal and a crosstalk element. The power penalty caused by the in-band crosstalk is further numerically studied and a guideline for the requirement of the optical switches used in the synchronizer is provided.

© 2004 IEEE

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  2. R. S. Tucker and W. D. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview", IEICE Trans. Commu., vol. E82-B, pp. 254-264, 1999.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

S. D. Dods, J. P. R. Lacey and R. S. Tucker, "Performance of WDM ring and bus networks in the presence of homodyne crosstalk", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 388-396, Mar. 1999.

M. P. Earnshaw, et al. "Semiconductor space switches based on multimode interference couplers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 643-650, Apr. 2002.

J. L. Gimlett, et al. "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 888-895, June 1989.

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 73-82, Jan. 1995.

C. Guillemot, et al. "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 2117-2133, Dec. 1998.

H. Takahashi, et al. "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on N × N optical interconnection", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1097-1105, June 1996 .

Other (16)

A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002, ch. 5.

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, 6th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2000, p. 499, eq. 3.958.

F. Gray, "Pulse code communication", U. S. Patent 2 632 058, Mar. 17, 1953.

W. Fang, W. D. Zhong, H. G. Shiraz, X. K. Yi and C. Lu, "Impact of inband crosstalk arising at the synchronization module of photonic packet switches", in Proc. OFC 2003, 2003, pp. 707-708.

P. J. Legg, M. Tur and I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks", J. Lightwave Technol., pp. 1943-1954, Sept. 1996.

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, 3rd ed. : Singapore: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2000.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter and J. E. Baran, "Digital optical switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, pp. 230-1232, 1987.

M. Renaud, M. Bachmann and M. Erman, "Semiconductor optical space switches", IEEE J. Select. Topic Quantum Electron., vol. 2, pp. 277-288, June 1996.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, New York: Wiley, 1985, p. 31-33, 157-170.

B. H. P. Dorren, J. E. M. Haverkort, R. Prasanth, F. H. Groen and J. H. Wolter, "Low-crosstalk penalty MZI space switch with a 0.64-mm phase shifter using quantum-well electrorefraction", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., pp. 37-39, Jan. 2001.

B. Moslehi, "Analysis of optical phase noise in fiber-optic systems employing a laser source with arbitrary coherence time", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 1334-1351, Sept. 1986.

A. Arie, et al. "Probability-density function of noise at the output of a two beam interferometer", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., pp. 1936-1942, 1991.

M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter and A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 128-135, Mar. 2001.

R. S. Tucker and W. D. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview", IEICE Trans. Commu., vol. E82-B, pp. 254-264, 1999.

L. Zucchelli, M. Burzio and P. Gambini, "New solutions for optical packet delineation and synchronization in optical packet switched networks", in Proc. ECOC'96, 1996, pp. 3.301-3.304.

M. Burzio, et al. "An optical cell synchronizer for packet switched nodes", in Proc. Photonics in Switching'95, 1995, pp. 12-17.

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