Abstract

Genetic algorithms have been demonstrated to be a robust method for the calculation of the refractive-index profile of annealed germanium-doped flame-hydrolysis deposited (FHD) silica layers using measurements of the effective refractive indexes of the different modes of propagation. A nonuniform refractive-index profile in depth was obtained, which agrees well with the germanium concentration and density profiles measured for the films.

© 2004 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, P. D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Analysis of doped layer step waveguides using dark modes", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 917-921, June 1990.

Other (18)

E. Alfaro-Cid and E. W. McGookin, "Genetic algorithm optimization of oil tanker control systems", in Proc. Conf. Control Applications Marine Systems, 2002, pp. 227-232.

J. Gowar, Optical Communication Systems (Series in Optoelectronics), London: U.K.: Prentice-Hall Int., 1983.

C. Gazen and C. Ersoy, "Genetic algorithms for designing multihop lightwave network topologies", Artif. Intell. Eng., vol. 13, pp. 211-221, 1991.

D. S. Weile and E. Michielssen, "Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: A review", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 45, pp. 343-353, Mar. 1997.

J. M. Johnson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics", IEEE Ant. Prog. Mag., vol. 39, pp. 7-21, 1997.

J. H. Holland, "Genetic algorithms", Sci. Amer. , vol. 267, pp. 66-72, 1992.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a nonstationary mode index calculation", Optica. Acta., vol. 33, pp. 127-143, 1986.

S. García-Blanco, "Electron-beam modification of silica for integrated optics", Ph.D. dissertation, Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K., 2003.

S. Wolf and R. N. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era, Sunset Beach, CA: Lattice Press, 1989, vol. 1.

L. Eldada, "Advances in telecom and datacom optical components", Opt. Eng., vol. 40, pp. 1165-1178, 2001.

J. M. Ruano, A. Glidle, A. Cleary, A. Walmsley, J. S. Aitchison and J. M. Cooper, "Design and fabrication of a silica on silicon integrated optical biochip as a fluorescence microarray platform", Biosensors Bioelectronics, vol. 18, pp. 175-184, 2003.

K. Hotate and T. Okoshi, "Measurement of refractive index profile and transmission characteristics of single-mode optical fiber from its exit-radiation pattern", Appl. Opt. , vol. 18, pp. 3265-3271, 1979.

K. Morishita, "Index profiling of three dimensional waveguides by the propagation-mode near-field method", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 1120-1124, Aug. 1986.

R. Ulrich and R. Torge, "Measurement of thin film parameters with a prism coupler", Appl. Opt. , vol. 12, pp. 2901-2908, 1973.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation, Cambridge: U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994.

J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems, Ann Arbor, MI: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1975.

D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Searching Optimization and Machine Learning, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1989.

C. Zuffada, T. Cwik and C. Ditchman, "Synthesis of novel all-dielectric grating filters using genetic algorithms", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 46, pp. 657-663, May 1998.

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