Abstract

This paper investigates the challenges for developing the current local area network (LAN)-based Ethernet protocol into a technology for future network architectures that is capable of satisfying dynamic traffic demands with hard service guarantees using high-bit-rate channels (80...100 Gb/s). The objective is to combine high-speed optical transmission and physical interfaces (PHY) with a medium access control (MAC) protocol, designed to meet the service guarantees in future metropolitan-area networks (MANs). Ethernet is an ideal candidate for the extension into the MAN as it allows seamless compatibility with the majority of existing LANs. The proposed extension of the MAC protocol focuses on backward compatibility as well as on the exploitation of the wavelength domain for routing of variable traffic demands. The high bit rates envisaged will easily exhaust the capacity of a single optical fiber in the C band and will require network algorithms optimizing the reuse of wavelength resources. To investigate this, four different static and dynamic optical architectures were studied that potentially offer advantages over current link-based designs. Both analytical and numerical modeling techniques were applied to quantify and compare the network performance for all architectures in terms of achievable throughput, delay, and the number of required wavelengths and to investigate the impact of nonuniform traffic demands. The results show that significant resource savings can be achieved by using end-to-end dynamic lightpath allocation, but at the expense of high delay.

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  56. C. C. Renaud, M. Dueser, C. F. C. Silva, B. Puttnam, T. Lovell, P. Bayvel and A. J. Seeds, "Nanosecond channel-switching exact optical frequency synthesizer using an optical injection phase-locked loop (OIPLL)", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 903 -905, Mar. 2004.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

M. J. Spencer and M. A. Summerfield, "WRAP: A medium access control protocol for wavelength-routed passive optical networks", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1657-1676, Dec. 2000.

D. Wonglumsom, I. M. White, K. Shrikhande, M. S. Rogge, S. M. Gemelos, A. F.-T. An, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius and L. G. Kazovsky, "Experimental demonstration of an access point for HORNET-A packet-over-WDM multiple-access MAN", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1709-1717, Dec. 2000 .

S. Baroni and P. Bayvel, "Wavelength requirements in arbitrarily connected wavelength-routed optical networks", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 242-251, Feb. 1997.

M. A. Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardo, M. Meo and F. Neri, "MAC protocols and fairness control in WDM multirings with tunable transmitters and fixed receivers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1230-1244, June 1996.

Other (54)

A. Bianco, V. Distefano, A. Fumagalli, E. Leonardo and F. Neri, "A-posteriori access strategies in all-optical slotted WDM rings", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 1998, vol. 1, Nov. 8-12 1998, pp. 300-306.

K. Bengi and H. R. van As, "Efficient QoS support in a slotted multihop WDM metro ring", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 20, pp. 216-227, Jan. 2002 .

J. Fransson, M. Johansson and M. Roughan, "Design of a medium access control protocol for a WDMA/TDMA photonic ring network", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 1998, vol. 1, Sydney, Australia,Nov. 8-12 1998, pp. 307-312.

J.-Y. Wang, W.-S. Hwang, W.-F. Wnag and C.-K. Shieh, "Modeling multi-channel slotted ring networks with tunable transmitters and fixed receivers", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Networks (ICON 2000), Singapore, Singapore,Sept. 5-8 2000, pp. 449-456.

M. A. Summerfield, "Wavelength division multiplexing for local area networks", in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Pacific Rim'99 , Seoul, Korea,Aug. 30-Sept. 3, Paper FN4,. pp. 1215-1216.

S. K. Korotky, "Network global expectation model: A statistical formalism for quickly quantifying network needs and costs", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 22, pp. 703-722, Mar. 2004.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, K. Sherman, Y. Su and C. Webb, et al. "Fast switching characteristics of a widely tunable laser transmitter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1038-1040, Aug. 2003.

R. Gaudino, A. Carena, V. Ferrero, A. Pozzi, V. De Feo, P. Gigante, F. Neri and P. Poggliolini, "RINGO: A WDM ring optical packet network demonstrator", in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC 2001), vol. 3, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sept. 30-Oct. 4 2001, pp. 620-621.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical Burst Switching (OBS)-A new paradigm for an optical Internet", J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, pp. 69-84, Aug. 1999.

M. Düser and P. Bayvel, "Analysis of wavelength-routed optical burst switched (WR-OBS) network architecture", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 20, pp. 574-585, Apr. 2002.

I. de Miguel, M. Kozlovski and P. Bayvel, "Provision of end-to-end delay guarantees in wavelength-routed optical burst switched networks," in Next Generation Optical Network Design and Modeling, A. Bianco, and F. Neri, Eds. Norwell: MA: Kluwer, 2003, pp. 85-100.

E. Kozlovski, M. Dueser, I. de Miguel and P. Bayvel, "Analysis of burst scheduling for dynamic wavelength assignment in optical burst switched networks", presented at the 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2001), San Diego, CA, Paper TuD2, Nov. 12-13, 2001.

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute and C. H. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, pp. 1838-1851, Oct. 2000.

N. Seitz, "ITU-T QoS standards for IP-based networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, pp. 82-89, June 2003.

A. Zapata, I. de Miguel, M. Düser, J. Spencer, P. Bayvel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik and A. Gladisch, "Performance comparison of static and dynamic optical metro ring network architectures", in Proc. 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), vol. 3, Rimini, Italy,Sept. 21-25 2003, pp. 374-375.

F. P. Kelly, "Loss networks", Annals Appl. Prob., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 319-378, Aug. 1991.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 6, pp. 197-206, Apr. 1998.

L. Kleinrock, Queueing Theory, New York: Wiley, 1975,vol. I.

O. Yang, "Performance comparison of some discrete service time systems", Perform. Eval., vol. 23, pp. 261-284, 1995.

A. Ge, F. Callegati and L. Tamil, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic", IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 98-100, Mar. 2000.

G. Hu, K. Dolzer and C. Gauger, "Does burst assembly really reduce the self-similarity?", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003, pp. 124- 126.

X. Yu, Y. Chen and C. Qiao, "A study of traffic statistics of assembled burst traffic in optical burst switched networks", in Proc. Opticomm 2002, Boston, MA, 29 July-1 Aug. 2002, pp. 149- 159.

I. de Miguel, M. Düser and P. Bayvel, "Traffic load bounds for optical burst switched networks with dynamic wavelength allocation," in Towards an Optical Internet:New Visions in Optical Network Design and Modeling, A. Jukan, Ed. Norwell: MA: Kluwer, 2002, pp. 209-224.

G. Hinton, D. Sager, M. Upton, D. Boggs, D. Carmean, A. Kyker and P. Roussel, (2001, 1st Quarter). The microarchitecture of the Pentium 4 processor. Intel Technology J. [Online]. Available: http://www.intel.com/technology/itj/q12001/articles/art_2.htm

G. Bennett, "Optical switches", presented at the Opticon 2001, San Jose, CA, Aug. 13-16 , 2001.

W. Fang and L. Peterson, "Inter-AS traffic patterns and their implications", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 1999, vol. 3, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,Dec. 5-9 1999, pp. 1859-1868.

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Diot, J. Jetcheva and N. Taft, "POP-level and access-link level traffic dynamics in a tier-1 POP", presented at the ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 2001.

I. Widjaja, "Performance analysis of burst admission control protocols", in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Communications, vol. 142, Feb. 1995, pp. 7-14.

E. Desurvire, D. Bayart, B. Desthhieux and S. Bigo, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, New York: Wiley, 2002.

A. Zapata, M. Düser, J. Spencer, P. Bayvel, I. de Miguel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik and A. Gladisch, "Investigation of future optical metro ring networks based on 100-gigabit metro ethernet (100 GbME)", in Proc. 4. ITG-Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, Germany,May 5-6 2003, pp. 89-98.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats", in Proc. 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC 2003), vol. 4, Rimini, Italy,Sept. 21-25 2003, pp. 1002- 1003.

E. Sano, "High-speed lightwave communication IC's based on III-V compound semiconductors", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, pp. 154-158, Jan. 2001.

K. Murata, K. Sano, S. Sugitani, H. Sugahara and T. Enoki, "100 Gbit/s multiplexing and demultiplexing IC operations in InP HEMT technology", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1529-1531, Nov. 2002.

L. Davis, M. G. Young, D. Dougherty, S. Keo, R. Muller and P. Maker, "Multiwavelength modelocked laser arrays for WDM applications", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1858-1860, Sept. 1998.

C. C. Renaud, M. Dueser, C. F. C. Silva, B. Puttnam, T. Lovell, P. Bayvel and A. J. Seeds, "Nanosecond channel-switching exact optical frequency synthesizer using an optical injection phase-locked loop (OIPLL)", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 903 -905, Mar. 2004.

A. Ravi, G. Banerjee, R. E. Bishop, B. A. Bloechel, L. R. Carley and K. Soumyanath, "10 GHz, 20 mW, fast locking, adaptive gain PLL's with on-chip frequency calibration for agile frequency synthesis in a.18 µm CMOS process", in Proc. IEEE Symposium VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan,June 12-14 2003, pp. 181-183.

P. Monteiro, J. N. Matos, A. Gameiro and J. R. F. da Rocha, "10 Gbit/s timing recovery circuit using dielectric resonator and active bandpass filters", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 819-820, Apr. 1992.

S. Keshav, An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997.

N. Ghani, J.-Y. Pan and X. Cheng, "Metropolitan area networks," in Optical Fiber Communications-Vol. IV-B: Systems and Impairments, I. P. Kaminow, and T. Li, Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002, pp. 329-403.

"10 Gb/s Ethernet", IEEE Standard 802.3ae, 2002.

"Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) Alliance", IEEE Standard 802.3ae, 2003.

"MAC Bridges", 1993.

"Link Aggregation", IEEE Standard 802.3ad, 2000.

"GARP/GMRP Timer Values", IEEE Standard 802.1p, 1997.

"Flow Control in Full-Duplex LANs", IEEEE Standard 802.3x, 1999 .

"VLAN TAG", IEEE Standard 802.3ac, 1998.

"Multiple Spanning Trees", IEEE Standard 802.1s, 2002.

J. Spencer, M. Düser, A. Zapata, I. de Miguel, P. Bayvel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik and A. Gladisch, "Design considerations for 100-Gigabit metro Ethernet (100 GbME)", in Proc. 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC 2003), vol. 4, Rimini, Italy,Sept. 21-25 2003, pp. 904 -905.

"Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree", IEEE Standard 802.1w, 1998.

(2002) Rapid Ring Spanning Tree Protocol. Riverstone Networks. [Online]. Available: http://www.riverstonenet.com

"Resilient Packet Ring", IEEE 802.17 Working Group, 2003.

P. Dykstra, (1999) Gigabit Ethernet Frames and Why You Should Care. [Online]. Available: http://sd.wareonearth.com/~phil/.html

M. Herzog, M. Maier and M. Reisslein, "Metropolitan area packet-switched WDM networks: A survey on ring systems", IEEE Communications Surveys, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 2-20, 2nd Quarter 2004.

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: a Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness, New York: W. H. Freeman, 1979.

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