Abstract

Analysis of a periodically segmented Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), intended for use as a biosensor, was performed using a "modular block" algorithm. The theoretical sensitivity limit increases with the number of cycles but is limited by cumulative attenuation. The periodically segmented MZI was found to exhibit better sensitivity than alternative methods under the same working conditions. However, devices with a high number of cycles (>350) were found to be impractical due to high attenuation losses. A 48-cycle periodically segmented waveguide MZI, with a predicted sensitivity limit of Delta n_min ~ 3.96 *10^-5, requires a shorter sensing length (0.24 mm) than that of alternative devices with similar sensitivity.

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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (21)

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger and A. Shahna, "Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO 4 waveguides", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 7519-7523, 1994.

Microchem, Inc. datasheet for SU8 2-25 Photoresist Series. [Online]. Available: http://www.microchem.com/products/su_eight.htm

CRC, "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics", 77th ed., 1996.

R. E. Kunz, G. Dueveneck and M. Ehart, "Sensing pads for hybrid and monolithic integrated optical immunosensors", SPIE, vol. 2331, pp. 2-17, 1994.

R. E. Kunz, "Miniature integrated optical modules for chemical and biochemical sensing", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 38-39, pp. 13-28, 1997.

M. Weisser, G. Tovar, S. Mittler-Neher, W. Knoll, F. Brosinger, H. Freimuth, M. Lacher and W. Ehrfeld, "Specific bio-recognition reactions observed with an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Biosens. Bioelec., vol. 14, pp. 409-415, 1999.

Z. Weissman, E. Brand, S. Ruschin and D. Goldberg, "Segmented waveguides and their applications for biosensing", SPIE, vol. 3936, pp. 284-292, 2000.

M. O. Twati and T. J. F. Pavlasek, "A three-wavelength Mach-Zehnder optical demultiplexer by one step ion-exchange in glass", Opt. Commun., vol. 206, pp. 327-332, 2002.

H. El-ReFaei, D. Yevick and I. Betty, "Stable and noniterative bidirectional beam propagation method", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 389-391, Apr. 2000.

P. Lin and Y. Y. Lu, "A bidirectional beam propagation method for periodic waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 325-327, Mar. 2002 .

M. Katz, D. Eger and M. B. Oron, "Refractive dispersion curve measurements of KTiOPO4 using periodically segmented waveguides and periodically poled crystals", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 90, pp. 53-58, 2001.

F. Brosinger, H. Freimuth, M. Lacher, W. Ehrfeld, E. Gedig, A. Katerkamp, F. Spener and K. Cammann, "A label-free affinity sensor with compensation of unspecific protein interaction by a highly sensitive integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer on silicon", Sens. Actuators B,Chem., vol. 44, pp. 350-355, 1997.

Y. Liu, P. Hering and M. O. Scully, "An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration", Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem., vol. 54, pp. 18-23, 1992.

Z. Weissman, E. Brand, I. Tsimberov, D. Brooks, S. Ruschin and D. Goldberg, "Mach-Zehnder type, evanescent-wave bio-sensor, in ion-exchanged glass, using periodically segmented waveguide", Proc. SPIE, vol. 3596, pp. 210-216, 1999.

J. L. Elster, M. E. Jones, M. K. Evans, S. M. Lenahan, C. A. Boyce, W. Velander and R. VanTassell, "Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric (EFPI)-based biosensors", SPIE, vol. 3911, pp. 105-112, 2000.

T. Yabu and S. Sawa, "A finite-difference vector beam propagation method for an isotropic open chiral slab waveguide", Elec. Commun., vol. 81, pp. 21-31, 1998.

H. Rao, R. Scarmozzino and R. M. Osgood Jr., "A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 830 -832, July 1999.

A. D'orazio, M. Sario, V. Petruzzelli and F. Prudenzano, "Bidirectional beam propagation method based on the method of lines for the analysis of photonic band gap structures", Opt. Quan. Elec., vol. 35, pp. 629-640, 2003.

H.-M. Keller, S. Perreira and J. E. Sipe, "Grating enhanced all-optical switching in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Opt. Commun., vol. 170, pp. 35 -40, 1999.

J. Dakin and B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1997.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman and J. Greve, "The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 40, pp. 147-153, 1997.

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