Abstract

This paper reports on a novel fiber design that has an inherently flattened effective Raman gain spectrum. Simulations show that gain-flattened broad-band Raman amplification, using a single pump, can be achieved in any wavelength band by suitably choosing the fiber parameters and the pump wavelength. The fiber also has a high negative dispersion coefficient - (380-515) ps/km·nm over the operating range of wavelengths - and the shape of the dispersion curve is such that the total link dispersion can be not only compensated but also flattened. Hence, the designed fiber can serve as a lossless, broad-band, dispersion-flattening, and dispersion-compensating module for the S band, wherein lossless operation is achieved using inherently gain-flattened single-pump Raman amplification. The performance characteristics of such a module was modeled taking into account wavelength-dependent splice loss as well as background loss, and it has been shown through simulations that lossless operation with ± 0.2-dB gain ripple is achievable over (1480-1511) nm using a single pump. Moreover, dispersion compensation for five spans of transmission in a 10-Gb/s system, over this 32-nm bandwidth in the S band, should be attainable using the proposed design.

© 2004 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (7)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Broadband high-gain dispersion compensating Raman amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1355-1356, Aug. 2000.

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell and B. Wakefield, "Optical gain spectrum of GeO 2 -SiO2 Raman fiber amplifiers", in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 136, Dec. 1989.

K. Thyagarajan and C. Kakkar, "Fiber design for broadband, gain-flattened Raman fiber amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1701-1703, Dec. 2003.

P. Palai, R. K. Varshney and K. Thyagarajan, "A dispersion flattening dispersion compensating fiber design for broadband dispersion compensation", Fiber Integr. Opt. , vol. 20, pp. 21-27, 2001.

Y. Kang, "Calculations and measurements of Raman gain coefficients of different fiber types", M.S. thesis, Dept. Electrical Engineering,Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA, 2002.

Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by 12-wavelength-channel WDM high power laser diodes", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'99), San Diego, CA, Postdeadline paper PD19, Feb. 21-26, 1999.

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