Abstract

The effect of beat noise and other types of additive noise in time-spreading optical-code-division multiple-access (TS-OCDMA) networks is analyzed in this paper. By defining the coherent ratio kt, the ratio of the chip duration to the coherence time of the light source, TS-OCDMA systems are classified into incoherent, partially coherent, and coherent systems. The noise distributions and the bit-error rates are derived, and system performance is discussed for different cases. The performance of coherent systems is limited by the beat noise. With increasing kt, the effect of beat noise decreases in incoherent systems, and they eventually become free of beat noise. Possible solutions to the beat noise problem in coherent and partially coherent systems are also proposed and discussed.

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  4. D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock and R. A. Griffin, "Photonic code-division multiple-access communications", Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 16, pp. 126-157, 1997.
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  6. K. Kitayama, N. Wada and H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations of photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1834-1844, Dec. 2000.
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  8. L. Nguyen, T. Dennis, B. Aazhang and J. F. Young, "Experimental demonstration of bipolar codes for optical spectral amplitude CDMA communication", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1647-1673, Sept. 1997 .
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  27. P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, L. B. Fu, J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff and D. J. Richardson, "A 16-chnnel OCDMA system (4 OCDM × 4 WDM) based on 16-chip, 20 Gchip/s superstructure fiber Bragg gratings and DFB fiber laser transmitters", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'2002), Los Angles, CA,ThEE1,. pp. 600-601.
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  30. P. J. Legg, M. Tur and I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1943-1953, Sept. 1996.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (11)

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro and T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 4, pp. 547-554, May 1986.

K. Kitayama, N. Wada and H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations of photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1834-1844, Dec. 2000.

L. Nguyen, T. Dennis, B. Aazhang and J. F. Young, "Experimental demonstration of bipolar codes for optical spectral amplitude CDMA communication", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1647-1673, Sept. 1997 .

R. A. Griffin, D. D. Sampson and D. A. Jackson, "Coherence coding for photonic code-division multiple access networks", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1826-1837, Sept. 1995.

M. E. Maric, "Coherent optical CDMA networks", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 854-864, May 1993.

N. Wada and K. Kitayama, "A 10 Gb/s optical code division multiplexing using 8-chip optical bipolar code and coherent detection", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1758-1765, Oct. 1999.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 478-491, Mar. 1990.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. J. Richardson, "A comparative study of the performance of seven-and 63-chip optical code-division multiple-access encoders and decoders based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1352-1365, Sept. 2001.

P. J. Legg, M. Tur and I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1943-1953, Sept. 1996.

M. Tur and E. L. Goldstein, "Dependence of error rate on signal-to-noise-ratio in fiber-optic communication systems with phase-induced intensity noise", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 2055-2058, Dec. 1989 .

Other (24)

J. W. Goodman, Statistic Optics, New York: Wiley, 1985.

X. Wang, K. I. Kitayama and K. Matsushima, "Beat noise limitation in coherent time-spreading OCDMA network", in Proc. 8th OptoElectronics Communication Conf. (OECC'2003), Shanghai, China, 2003,Paper 16E2-4,. pp. 727-728.

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, K. I. Kitayama, A. Nishiki and S. Oshiba, "Demonstration of the improvement of apodized 127-chip SSFBG in coherent time-spreading OCDMA network", presented at Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'04),. [CD-ROM].

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, F. Kubota and K.-I. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of 511-chip 640 Gchip/s superstructured FBG for high performance optical code processing", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'04), 2004, Paper Tu1.3.7,. pp. 134-135.

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, L. B. Fu, J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff and D. J. Richardson, "A 16-chnnel OCDMA system (4 OCDM × 4 WDM) based on 16-chip, 20 Gchip/s superstructure fiber Bragg gratings and DFB fiber laser transmitters", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'2002), Los Angles, CA,ThEE1,. pp. 600-601.

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz and H. M. H. Shalaby, "New code families for fiber-Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 890 -892, Aug. 2001.

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the beat noise on the performance of 2-D optical CDMA systems", IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 264-266, Aug. 2000.

X. Wang, K. T. Chan, Y. Liu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Novel temporal/spectral coding technique based on fiber Bragg gratings for fiber optic CDMA application", in Dig. Optical Fiber Communication/Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC/IOOC'99), 1999, pp. 341- 343.

N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama, "2.5 Gbit/s time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing using fiber Bragg grating with super continuum light source", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 815-817, 2000.

S. Yegnanarayanan, A. S. Bhshan and B. Jalali, "Fast wavelength-hopping time-spreading encoding/decoding for optical CDMA", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 573-575, May 2000.

K. Yum, J. Shin and N. Park, "Wavelength-time spreading optical CDMA system using wavelength multiplexers and mirrors fiber delay lines", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1278-1280, Sept. 2000.

X. Wang and K. T. Chan, "A sequentially self-seeded Fabry-Pérot laser for two-dimensional encoding/decoding of optical pulses", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, pp. 83-90, Jan. 2003.

C. C. Chang, H. P. Sardesai and A. M. Weiner, "Code-division multiple-access encoding and decoding of femtosecond optical pulses over a 2.5 Km fiber link", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 171-173, Jan. 1998.

H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, T. Ishii, K. Okamoto, T. Goh, K. Sato, A. Hirano, T. Kurokawa and C. Amano, "Spectral encoding and decoding of 10 Gbit/s femtosecond pulses using high resolution arrayed-waveguide grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1186-1187, 1999.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1096-1097, 1999.

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic and J. Budin, "Massive optical LAN's using hybrid time spreading/wavelength hoping scheme", presented at the Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC'95), Hong Kong, China,Paper TuA1-2, June 26-30, 1995.

G. C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of the multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA+CDMA for fiber-optic networks", IEEE. Trans. Commun., vol. 45, pp. 1426-1434, Nov. 1997.

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu and E. Yablonovitvh, "Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1504-1506, Oct. 1998.

E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikei and D. P. Taylor, "Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation", IEEE. Trans. Commun., vol. 46, pp. 1176-1185, Sept. 1998.

T. O'Farrell and S. I. Lochmann, "Performance analysis of an optical correlator receiver for SIK DS-CDMA communication systems networks with bipolar capacity", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 63-65, 1994 .

J. A. Salihi and C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access technique in optical fiber networks, part I: Fundamental principals and part II: Systems performance analysis", IEEE. Trans. Commun., vol. 37, pp. 824-842, Aug. 1989.

M. E. Marhic, "Trends in optical CDMA", in Proc. Multigigabit Fiber Communication (SPIE), vol. 1787, 1992, pp. 80-98.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock and R. A. Griffin, "Photonic code-division multiple-access communications", Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 16, pp. 126-157, 1997.

K. I. Kitayama, "Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 16, pp. 1209-1319, Sept. 1998 .

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