Abstract

Femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm and 120 fs were used to fabricate high-quality retroreflecting fiber Bragg gratings in standard Ge-doped telecom fiber (Corning SMF-28) and all-silica-core Fluorine doped cladding single-mode fiber using a deep-etch silica zero-order nulled phase mask. Induced index modulations of 1.9 × 10 -3 were achieved with peak power intensities of 2.9 × 10 12 W/cm2 without any fiber sensitization such as hydrogen loading. The fiber gratings have annealing characteristics similar to type II damage fiber gratings and demonstrate stable operation at temperatures as high as 950°C. The grating devices exhibit low polarization dependence. The primary mechanism of induced index change results from a structural modification to the fiber core.

© 2004 IEEE

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Appl. Opt.

Opt. Lett.

Other

K.-I. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano and H. Hosono, "Holographic encoding of fine-pitched micrograting structures in amorphous SiO2 thin films on silicon by a single femtosecond laser pulse", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 78, pp. 1038-1040, Feb. 2001.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyy, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kanansky and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses", Opt. Lett. , vol. 24, pp. 646-649, May 1999.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, pp. 1035-1037, Mar. 1993.

G. D. Goodno, G. Dadusc and R. J. D. Miller, "Ultrafast heterodyne-detected transient-grating spectroscopy using diffractive optics", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 15, pp. 1791-1794, June 1998.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley and R. Giedl, "Analysis of grating formation with excimer laser irradiated phase masks", Opt. Commun., vol. 115, pp. 327-334, Mar. 1995.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding and J. Unruh, "Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) made with a phase mask and 800 nm femtosecond radiation", in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 23-28,Paper PD-30.

W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon and T. Georges, "Second order diffraction efficiency of Bragg gratings written within germanosilicate fibers", Opt. Commun., vol. 101, pp. 85-91, 1993.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu and H. Ding, "Impact of hydrogen loading on the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings with ultrafast 800 nm laser radiation", in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides Topical Meeting (BGPP 2003), Monterey, CA, Sept. 1-3 2003,Paper PDP3.

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert and K. O. Hill, "Single-excimer-pulse writing of fiber gratings by use of a zero-ordernulled phase mask: grating spectral response and visualization of index perturbations", Opt. Lett, vol. 18, pp. 1277-1279, Aug. 1993 .

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, "Recording of efficient high-order Bragg reflectors in optical fibers by mask image projection and single pulse exposure with an excimer laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 707-709, Apr. 1994.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 14, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie and P. S. J. Russell, "100% reflectivity bragg reflectors produced in optical fibers by single excimer laser pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 453-455, Mar. 1993.

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1234-1235, July 1993.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 73-80, July 1994.

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