Abstract

Raman amplification has enabled dramatic increases in the reach and capacity of lightwave systems. This tutorial explains why, starting with the fundamental properties of gain from stimulated Raman scattering. Next,noise accumulation from amplified spontaneous emission is reviewed, and the merits of distributing Raman gain along a transmission fiber are explained. Other sources of noise that are particularly relevant for Raman amplifiers are summarized. Finally, novel Raman pumping schemes that have recently been developed are highlighted.

© 2004 IEEE

PDF Article

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription