Abstract

Planar holographic Bragg reflectors (HBRs) are computer-generated slab-waveguide holograms. They operate in two dimensions to provide powerful free-space-like spectral and spatial processing of optical signals in an integrated optics environment. An HBR typically images an input port to an output port while applying a specific spectral filtering function. HBRs are fully consistent with robust photolithographic or imprint-based fabrication and can be flexibly designed to offer a wide range of spatial wavefront control and single and multichannel spectral transfer functions. We report on lithographically fabricated,focusing HBRs implemented in the silica-on-silicon format whose spectral and spatial performances reach fundamental device limits set, respectively, by Fourier transform and diffractive constraints. We also demonstrate that HBRs support a unique process-friendly approach to apodization and overlay that uses fixed-depth etching and partial contour writing to achieve continuous reflective amplitude control of constitutive diffractive elements.

© 2004 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (19)

T. W. Mossberg, "Lithographic holography in planar waveguides", SPIE Holography Newsletter, vol. 12, 2001.

C. Greiner, D. Iazikov and T. W. Mossberg, "Lithographically scribed, focusing, planar holographic Bragg reflector with 17-GHz passband and 0.3 cm2 footprint", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Atlanta, GA, Mar. 23-28 2003,post-deadline paper PD31.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 15, pp. 1277-1294, 1997.

T. Komukai, K. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, "An efficient 0.04-nm apodized fiber Bragg grating and its application to narrow-band spectral filtering", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 934-936, July 1997.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1096-1097, 1999.

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni and G. L. Bona, "Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 639 -641, June 2000.

D. Wiesmann, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, C. David, D. Erni and H. Jackel, "Add-drop filter based on apodized surface-corrugated gratings", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 20, pp. 417-423, 2003.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson and J. Albert, "Variable-spectral-response optical waveguide Bragg grating filters for optical signal processing", Opt. Lett. , vol. 20, pp. 1438-1440, 1995.

Y. Shibata, T. Tamamura, S. Oku and Y. Kondo, "Coupling coefficient modulation of waveguide grating using sampled grating", IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1222-1224, Oct. 1994.

T. Erdogan and D. G. Hall, "Circularly symmetric distributed feedback laser: coupled mode treatment of TE vector fields", J. Quantum Electron. , vol. 28, pp. 612-623, 1992.

R. H. Jordan, D. G. Hall, O. King, G. Wicks and S. Rishton, "Lasing behavior of circular grating surface emitting semiconductor lasers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 14, pp. 449-453, 1997.

M. T. Gale, "Replication technology for holograms and diffractive optical elements", J. Imag. Sci. Technol., vol. 41, pp. 211-220, 1997.

J. Wang, S. Schablitsky, Z. Yu, W. Wu and S. Y. Chou, "Fabrication of a new broadband waveguide polarizer with a double-layer 190 nm period metal-gratings using nanoimprint lithography", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 17, pp. 2957-2960, 1999.

J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Performance optimization of Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating filters in WDM systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 8, pp. 1537-1544, 2002.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel and J. Azana, "Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: an improved design", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 694-696, June 1999.

V. Yankov, S. Babin, I. Ivonin, A. Goltsov, A. Morozov, L. Polonskiy, M. Spector, A. Talapov, E.-B. Kley and H. Schmidt, "Multiwavelength Bragg gratings and their application to optical MUX/DEMUX devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 410-412, Mar. 2003.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler and R. F. Kazarinov, "Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 60, pp. 1779-1781, 1992.

Y. Inoue, K. Katoh and M. Kawachi, "Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 36-38, 1992.

M. Li, B. S. Luo, C. P. Grover, Y. Feng and H. C. Liu, "Waveguide grating coupler with a tailored spectral response based on a computer-generated waveguide hologram", Opt. Lett. , vol. 24, pp. 655-657, 1999.

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