Polarization-related impairments have become a critical issue for high-data-rate optical systems, particularly when considering polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL). In general, polarization effects are stochastic processes and can occur on short or long time scales. Therefore, control and monitoring of these effects may be crucial in any systems-level mitigation. This tutorial will highlight the following key issues: PMD and PDL, monitoring schemes, emulation of proper statistics, interaction, and applications of polarization scrambling.
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