Abstract

This tutorial describes the basic principles and performance analysis of optical intensity modulators using electrooptic and electroabsorption effects, for use in analog and digital communication systems. These include Lithium Niobate modulators, semiconductor electroabsorption modulators, semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulators, and polymer modulators.

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  61. D. Penninckx and Ph. Delansay, "Comparison of the propagation performance over standard dispersive fiber between InP-based p -phase-shifted and symmetrical Mach-Zehnder modulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1250-1252, 1997.
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  71. H. Feng, T. Makino, S. Ogita, H. Maruyama and M. Kondo, "40 Gb/s electro-absorption-modulator-integrated DFB laser with optimized design", in Proc. OFC'02 Tech. Dig., (Optical Fiber Communication), 2002,paper WV4,. pp. 340-341.
  72. "For co-packaged laser and GaAs MZM, please refer to the product catalog of Bookham-Marconi (Northamptonshire, UK); for co-packaged laser and 10 Gb/s MQW MZM, please refer to the product catalog of Nortel Networks (Canada)",
  73. D. M. Adams, C. Rolland, N. Puetz, R. S. Moore, F. R. Shephers, H. B. Kim and S. Bradshaw, "Mach-Zehnder modulator integrated with a gain-coupled DFB laser for 10 Gb/s 100 km NDSF transmission at 1.55 µ m", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 485-486, 1996.
  74. S. Lovisa, N. Bouche, H. Helmers, Y. Heymes, F. Brillouet, Y. Gottesman and K. Rao, "Integrated Laser Mach-Zehnder modulator on indium phosphide free of modulated-feedback", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1295-1297, 2001.

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

S. Y. Wang and S. H. Lin, "High speed III-V electrooptic waveguide modulators at ? = 1.3 µ m", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 758-771, 1988.

S. K. Korotky and J. J. Veselka, "An RC network analysis of long term Ti:LiNbO3 bias stability", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 2687-2697, 1996.

J. G. Mendoza-alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee and K. Pedrotti, "Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 793-808, 1988.

B. Desormiere, C. Maerfeld and J. Desbois, "An integrated optic frequency translator for microwave lightwave systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 506-513, 1990.

E. Vergnol, F. Devaux, D. Tanguy and E. Penard, "Integrated lightwave millimetric single side-band source: Design and issues", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1276-1284, 1998.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1937-1940, 1993.

Other (68)

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, Y. Kushino and S. Akiba, "Dynamic spectral width of an InGaAsP/InP electroabsorption light modulator under high-frequency large-signal modulation", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 312-313, 1986.

G. H. Smith and D. Novak, "Broad-band millimeter-wave (38 GHz) fiber-wireless transmission system using electrical and optical SSB modulation to overcome dispersion effects", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 141-3, 1998 .

H. Takeuchi, "Ultra-fast electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers", in Proc. IPRM'2001 (Int. Conf. InP and Related Materials), 2001, paper WA3-1.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada and H. Wada, "Over-40-GHz modulation bandwidth of EAM-integrated DFB laser modules", in Proc. OFC'01 Tech. Dig., (Optical Fiber Communication) , 2001,paper MJ3.

H. Feng, T. Makino, S. Ogita, H. Maruyama and M. Kondo, "40 Gb/s electro-absorption-modulator-integrated DFB laser with optimized design", in Proc. OFC'02 Tech. Dig., (Optical Fiber Communication), 2002,paper WV4,. pp. 340-341.

"For co-packaged laser and GaAs MZM, please refer to the product catalog of Bookham-Marconi (Northamptonshire, UK); for co-packaged laser and 10 Gb/s MQW MZM, please refer to the product catalog of Nortel Networks (Canada)",

D. M. Adams, C. Rolland, N. Puetz, R. S. Moore, F. R. Shephers, H. B. Kim and S. Bradshaw, "Mach-Zehnder modulator integrated with a gain-coupled DFB laser for 10 Gb/s 100 km NDSF transmission at 1.55 µ m", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 485-486, 1996.

S. Lovisa, N. Bouche, H. Helmers, Y. Heymes, F. Brillouet, Y. Gottesman and K. Rao, "Integrated Laser Mach-Zehnder modulator on indium phosphide free of modulated-feedback", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1295-1297, 2001.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, "Continuously-tunable single-frequency semiconductor lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-23, pp. 903-908, 1987.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, "Optical waves in crystals,"in Optical Electronics, New York: Wiley, 1984.

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, "Metal diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 458-460, 1974.

H. F. Taylor, "Polarization independent guided wave optical modulators and switches", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-3, pp. 1277-1280, 1985.

P. Granestrand, L. Thylen and B. Stoltz, "Polarization independent switch and polarization splitter employing ? ß and ? ? modulation", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1142-1143, 1988.

L. McCaughan, "Low loss polarization independent electrooptic switches", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-2, pp. 51-55, 1984.

P. A. Morton, R. A. Logan, T. Tanbun-Ek, P. F. Sciortino, Jr, A. M. Sergent, R. K. Montgomery and B. T. Lee, "25 GHz bandwidth 1.55 µ m GaInAsP p-doped strained multiquantum well lasers", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 2156-2157, 1992.

N. K. Dutta, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, P. Besomi, R. B. Wilson and R. J. Nelson, "Frequency chirp under current modulation in InGaAsP injection lasers", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 56, pp. 2167-2169, 1984.

N. Dagli, "Wide-bandwidth lasers and modulators for RF photonics", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 47, pp. 1151-1171, 1999.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, pp. 69-82, 2000.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson and J. H. Bechtel, "Long term stable direct current bias operation in electrooptic polymer modulators with an electrically compatible multilayer structure", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, pp. 2236-2238, 1997.

H. Nagata, N. Papasavvas and D. R. Maack, "Bias stability of OC48 x-cut lithium-niobate optical modulators: Four years of biased aging test results", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 42-44, 2003 .

G. L. Li, R. B. Welstand, W. X. Chen, J. T. Zhu, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, Y. Z. Liu and P. K. L. Yu, "Novel bias control of electroabsorption waveguide modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 672-674, 1998.

G. L. Li, Y. Z. Liu, R. B. Welstand, C. K. Sun, W. X. Chen, J. T. Zhu, S. A. Pappert and P. K. L. Yu, "Harmonic signals from electroabsorption modulators for bias control", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 659-661, 1999.

G. E. Betts, F. J. O'Donnell and K. G. Ray, "Effect of annealing photorefractive damage in titanium indiffused LiNbO 3 modulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 211-213, 1994.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson and J. H. Bechtel, "Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electrooptic polymer thin films", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, pp. 1040-1042, 1996.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, W. Lin, D. J. Olson and J. H. Bechtel, "Double end cross linked electrooptic polymer modulators with high optical power handling capability", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 70, pp. 1342-1344, 1997.

K. K. Loi, J. H. Hodiak, X. B. Mei, C. W. Tu, W. S. C. Chang, D. T. Nichols, L. J. Lembo and J. C. Brock, "Low-loss 1.3-µ m MQW electroabsorption modulators for high-linearity analog optical links", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1572 -1574, 1998.

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-function electroabsorption waveguide modulator/detector for optoelectronic transceiver applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1540-1542, 1996.

K. K. Loi, X. B. Mei, J. H. Hodiak, A. N. Cheng, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, C. W. Tu and W. S. C. Chang, "Experimental study of efficiency-bandwidth tradeoff of electroabsorption waveguide modulators for microwave photonic links", in Proc. IEEE LEOS, vol. 1, 1997, pp. 142-143.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications, New York: Wiley, 1992, ch. 2.

J. Yu, C. Rolland, D. Yevick, A. Somani and S. Bradshaw, "A novel method for improving the performance of InP/InGaAsP multiple-quantum-well Mach-Zehnder modulators by phase shift engineering", in Proc. IPR'96 (Int. Conf. InP and Related Materials) , 1996, paper 1TuG4-1,. pp. 376-379.

D. Penninckx and Ph. Delansay, "Comparison of the propagation performance over standard dispersive fiber between InP-based p -phase-shifted and symmetrical Mach-Zehnder modulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1250-1252, 1997.

F. Dorgeuille and F. Devaux, "On the transmission performances and the chirp parameter of a multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulator", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 30, pp. 2565 -2572, 1994.

H. Soda, K. Sato, K. Nakai, H. Ishikawa and H. Imai, "Chirp behavior of high-speed GaInAsP/InP optical intensity modulator", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1194-1195, 1988.

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