Abstract

Strong photosensitivity responses with the use of above-bandgap 157-nm F2-laser radiation are reported for standard germanosilicate fiber. A large 1.3 × 10-3 effective index change at 1.55 µm was inferred by trimming strong and weak Bragg gratings in hydrogen-free fiber. The F2-laser fluence-processing window of < 50~ mJ/cm2 is much lower than with traditional ultraviolet (UV) lasers. For hydrogen-soaked fiber, highly asymmetric refractive-index profiles were noted by atomic force microscopy and microreflection microscopy, yielding a peak index change of > 0.01 across a small 1-µm penetration depth at the fiber core. The index asymmetry appears to underlie the large > 5 × 10-5 value of laser-induced birefringence.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, "Characterization of the lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1517-1523, Sept. 1994.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (22)

T. Erdogan and V. Mizrahi, "Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 11, pp. 2100-2105, 1994.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman and R. Tam, "Strong fiber Bragg grating fabrication by hybrid 157-and 248-nm laser exposure", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 170-172, Feb. 2002.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman and J. Zhang, "Large photosensitivity in germanosilicate planar waveguides induced by 157-nm F2 -laser radiation", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Tech. Dig. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS), vol. 54, Washington, DC, 2001,Paper WDD81.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson and S. Theriault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 3529-3531, 1995.

J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono and H. Kawazoe, "Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2 -SiO2 glasses", Opt. Lett. , vol. 20, pp. 1184-1186, 1995.

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski and P. J. Lemaire, "Atomic force microscopy study of UV-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 65, pp. 1528-1530, 1994.

D. C. Psaila, C. M. Sterke and F. Ouellette, "Double pass technique for fabricating compact optical fiber rocking filters", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1093-1094, 1995.

P. E. Dyer, A. -M. Johnson, H. V. Snelling and C. D. Walton, "Measurement of 157 nm F 2 laser heating of silica fiber using an in situ fiber Bragg grating", J. Phys. D, vol. 34, pp. L109-L112, 2001.

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, K. Kurosawa, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi and J. Yang, "Processing applications with the 157 nm fluorine excimer laser", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2992, 1997, pp. 86-95.

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, C. Lauer, K. P. Chen and M. Wei, "157-nm laser-induced modification of fused-silica glasses", in Laser Appl. Microelectron. Optoelectron. Manuf., SPIE Proc., vol. 4274, 2001, pp. 125-132.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl and K. C. Byron, "Amplification of fiber Bragg grating reflectivity by post-writing exposure with a 193 nm ArF laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1133-1134, 1994.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 647-648, 1978.

L. R. Chen, D. J. F. Cooper and P. W. E. Smith, "Transmission filters with multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1283-1285, Sept. 1998.

J. A. R. William, I. Bennion, K. Sugden and N. J. Doran, "Fiber dispersion compensation using a chirped in-fiber Bragg grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 985-986, 1994.

S. Y. Ko, M. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. C. Jo and J. H. Park, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by tuning centre wavelength of a fiber Bragg grating constituting resonant cavity", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 900-901, 1998.

D. W. Morey, G. Meltz, J. D. Love and S. J. Hewlett, "Mode-coupling characteristics of UV-written Bragg gratings in depressed-cladding fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 730-732, 1994.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultra-high UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1191-1193, 1993.

P. J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: Prediction of long-term loss increases", Opt. Eng., vol. 30, pp. 780-789, 1991.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 73-80, 1994.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 15, pp. 1329-1342, Aug. 1997.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson and S. Thériault, "Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunication fiber exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 879-880, 1995.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam and J. Zhang, "Rapid long-period grating formation in hydrogen-loaded fiber with 157-nm F2 -laser irradiation", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 2000-2001, 2000.

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