Abstract

The performance degradation caused by polarization-dependent loss (PDL) in optical fiber transmission systems in both the absence and presence of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) is studied. First a simple theory is given to show how PDL affects the system performance and then extensive simulation results are presented. We show that PDL causes a much larger fluctuation of optical-signal-to-orthogonal-noise ratio (OSNRort) than that of optical-signal-to-parallel-noise ratio (OSNRpar), but OSNRpar has a much larger impact on the system performance than OSNRort . We find that when there is no PMD, the system performance degradation induced by PDL can be effectively reduced by suppressing OSNRpar fluctuation. However, the presence of PMD in the system could significantly reduce the efficiency of the PDL mitigation technique, especially the mitigation technique that suppresses the OSNRpar fluctuation.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

E. Lichtman, "Limitation imposed by polarization-dependent gain and loss on all-optical ultralong communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 906-913, May 1995.

L. Chen, J. Cameron and X. Bao, "Statistics of polarization mode dispersion in presence of the polarization dependent losss in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 665-667, May 2000.

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 1071-1082, July 1989 .

Other (14)

C. J. Anderson and J. A. Lyle, "Technique for evaluating system performance using Q factor in numerical simulations exhibiting intersymbol interference", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 71-72, 1994.

F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman and D. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system", in Proc. ECOC'98 , vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 529-530.

F. Bruyère and O. Audouin, "Penalties in long-haul optical amplifier systems due to polarization dependent loss and gain", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 654-656, May 1994.

B. Huttner, C. Geiser and N. Gisin, "Polarization-induced distortion in optical fiber networks with polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 317-329, Mar.-Apr. 2000.

K. Eriksson, M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, "Pulse broadening in systems with PMD and a polarizer", presented at the ECOC'2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper 9.3.6, Sept. 8-12, 2002 .

C. Xie, L. F. Mollenauer and L. Möller, "Pulse distortion induced by combined effects of PMD and PDL in optical transmission systems", in Proc. OFC 2003, vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper MF72,. pp. 90-91.

H. F. Haunstein and H. M. Kallert, "Influence of PMD on the performance of optical transmission systems in the presence of PDL", presented at the Proc. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, Paper WT4, Mar. 17-22, 2001.

N. Y. Kim, D. Lee, H. Yoon, J. Park and N. Park, "Limitation of PMD compensation due to polarization-dependent loss in high-speed optical transmission links", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 104-106, Jan. 2002 .

L. -S. Yan, Q. Xu, Y. Xie and A. E. Willner, "Experimental demonstration of the system performance degradation due to the combined effect of polarization-dependent loss with polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 224-226, Feb. 2002.

M. Shtaif, A. Mecozzi and R. W. Tkach, "Noise enhancement caused by polarization dependent loss and the effect of dynamic gain equalizers", in Proc. OFC'2002, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2002,Paper TuI2,. pp. 48-50.

M. Yu, C. Kan, M. Lewis and A. Sizmann, "Statistics of signal-to-noise ratio and path-accumulated power due to concatenation of polarization-dependent loss", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1418-1420, Oct. 2002.

Y. Sun, I. T. Lima Jr., H. Jiao, J. Wen, H. Xu, H. Ereifej, G. M. Carter and C. R. Menyuk, "Study of system performance in a 107-km dispersion-managed recirculating loop due to polarization effects", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 966-968, Sept. 2001 .

A. Mecozzi and M. Shtaif, "The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in optical communication systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 313-315, Mar. 2002.

H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson and L. E. Nelson, "Polarization mode dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, and T. Li Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002,vol. IVB, pp. 725-861.

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