Abstract

A novel analytical model is proposed to predict the cross-phase modulation (XPM)-induced depolarization in a two-channel transmission system,in which the Stokes' vector of each channel rotates around a space-invariant pivot by a time-varying angle which depends on the total instantaneous optical power in the fiber, on the angle between pump and probe input Stokes' vectors,and on the walk-off between channels. The model leads to a simple formula of the probe degree of polarization (DOP) which is validated both by simulation and experiment. The model helps identify the key physical factors that determine the XPM-induced performance degradation of DOP-based first-order polarization-mode dispersion compensators, and experiments that quantify such degradation are presented.

© 2003 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. D. Wang and C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization evolution due to the Kerr nonlinearity and chromatic dispersion", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 2520-2529, Dec. 1999.
  2. F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyère and D. Penninckx, "A simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. OFC 1999, San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, Paper TuS4,. pp. 275-278.
  3. F. Heismann, D. Fishmann and D. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first order polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. ECOC'98, Madrid, Spain,Sept. 1998, pp. 529 -530.
  4. R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Y. Dierolf, S. Honz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schöplin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fisher, T. Weyerauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gbit/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1602-1616, Sept. 1999.
  5. R. Khoshravani, Y. Xie, L.-S. Yan, Y. W. Song, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Limitations to first order PMD mitigation compensation in WDM systems due to XPM-induced PSP changes", in Proc. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001,Paper WAA5.
  6. Z. Pan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner and Y. Arieli, "Fast XPM-induced polarization-state fluctuations in WDM systems and their mitigation", in Proc. OFC 2002, Anaheim, CA, 2002,Paper ThA7,. pp. 379-381.
  7. L. Möller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta and S. Wielandy, "Setup for demonstration of cross channel induced nonlinear PMD in WDM system", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 306-307, Mar. 2001.
  8. E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne, S. Bigo, A. Vannucci and A. Bononi, "Experimental statistical assessment of XPM impact on optical PMD compensator efficiency", in Proc. OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Feb. 2003,Paper ThJ2.
  9. J. H. Lee, K. J. Park, C. H. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "Effects of nonlinear crosstalk in optical PMD compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1082-1084, Aug. 2002.
  10. N. Kikuchi, "Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 480-486, Apr. 2001.
  11. L. Möller, S. Chandrasekhar and L. L. Buhl, "Dependence of nonlinear depolarization on the overall polarization of PMD distorted WDM signals", in Proc. ECOC '01, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sept. 2001,Paper TuA3.6,. pp. 214-215.
  12. B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, "Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1582-1584, Nov. 2000.
  13. A. Cartaxo, "Impact of modulation frequency on cross-phase modulation effect intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1268-1270, Sept. 1998 .
  14. G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia and A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical-fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1745-1747, Dec. 1998.
  15. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.
  16. K.-P. Ho, "Statistical properties of stimulated Raman crosstalk in WDM systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 915-921, July 2000.
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, New York: Academic, 1989.
  18. D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk and P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1735-1745, Sept. 1997 .
  19. S. Huard, Polarization de la lumière, Paris: France: Masson, 1994.
  20. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", Proc. Nat. Academy Sci., vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 4541-4550, Apr. 2000.
  21. N. J. Frigo, "A generalized geometrical representation of coupled mode theory", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-22, pp. 2131-2140, Nov. 1986.
  22. A. Bononi, C. Francia and G. Bellotti, "Impulse response of cross-phase modulation filters in multi-span transmission systems with dispersion compensation", Proc. Optical Fiber Technology 4, pp. 371-383, 1998.
  23. T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic and L. G. Kazovsky, "Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 249-259, Mar. 1996.
  24. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.
  25. A. Vannucci, A. Bononi, A. Orlandini, E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne and S. Bigo, "A simple formula for the degree of polarization degraded by XPM and its experimental validation", in Proc. OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Feb. 2003,Paper ThJ1.
  26. M. R. Philips and D. M. Ott, "Crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities in WDM CATV lightwave systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1782-1792, Oct. 1999.

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Y. Dierolf, S. Honz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schöplin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fisher, T. Weyerauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gbit/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1602-1616, Sept. 1999.

N. Kikuchi, "Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 480-486, Apr. 2001.

D. Wang and C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization evolution due to the Kerr nonlinearity and chromatic dispersion", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 2520-2529, Dec. 1999.

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.

K.-P. Ho, "Statistical properties of stimulated Raman crosstalk in WDM systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 915-921, July 2000.

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk and P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1735-1745, Sept. 1997 .

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic and L. G. Kazovsky, "Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 249-259, Mar. 1996.

M. R. Philips and D. M. Ott, "Crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities in WDM CATV lightwave systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1782-1792, Oct. 1999.

Other (18)

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

A. Vannucci, A. Bononi, A. Orlandini, E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne and S. Bigo, "A simple formula for the degree of polarization degraded by XPM and its experimental validation", in Proc. OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Feb. 2003,Paper ThJ1.

S. Huard, Polarization de la lumière, Paris: France: Masson, 1994.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", Proc. Nat. Academy Sci., vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 4541-4550, Apr. 2000.

N. J. Frigo, "A generalized geometrical representation of coupled mode theory", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-22, pp. 2131-2140, Nov. 1986.

A. Bononi, C. Francia and G. Bellotti, "Impulse response of cross-phase modulation filters in multi-span transmission systems with dispersion compensation", Proc. Optical Fiber Technology 4, pp. 371-383, 1998.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, New York: Academic, 1989.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyère and D. Penninckx, "A simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. OFC 1999, San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, Paper TuS4,. pp. 275-278.

F. Heismann, D. Fishmann and D. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first order polarization mode dispersion compensator", in Proc. ECOC'98, Madrid, Spain,Sept. 1998, pp. 529 -530.

L. Möller, S. Chandrasekhar and L. L. Buhl, "Dependence of nonlinear depolarization on the overall polarization of PMD distorted WDM signals", in Proc. ECOC '01, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sept. 2001,Paper TuA3.6,. pp. 214-215.

B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, "Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1582-1584, Nov. 2000.

A. Cartaxo, "Impact of modulation frequency on cross-phase modulation effect intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1268-1270, Sept. 1998 .

G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia and A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical-fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1745-1747, Dec. 1998.

R. Khoshravani, Y. Xie, L.-S. Yan, Y. W. Song, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Limitations to first order PMD mitigation compensation in WDM systems due to XPM-induced PSP changes", in Proc. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001,Paper WAA5.

Z. Pan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner and Y. Arieli, "Fast XPM-induced polarization-state fluctuations in WDM systems and their mitigation", in Proc. OFC 2002, Anaheim, CA, 2002,Paper ThA7,. pp. 379-381.

L. Möller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta and S. Wielandy, "Setup for demonstration of cross channel induced nonlinear PMD in WDM system", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 306-307, Mar. 2001.

E. Corbel, J.-P. Thiéry, S. Lanne, S. Bigo, A. Vannucci and A. Bononi, "Experimental statistical assessment of XPM impact on optical PMD compensator efficiency", in Proc. OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Feb. 2003,Paper ThJ2.

J. H. Lee, K. J. Park, C. H. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "Effects of nonlinear crosstalk in optical PMD compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1082-1084, Aug. 2002.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.