Abstract

We assess, both by measurement and simulation, the receiver performance degradation caused by frequency offsets between the optical source and the delay interferometer for nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) and differential-quadrature-phase-shift-keying (DQPSK) systems. We find that NRZ-and RZ-DQPSK systems are about six times more sensitive to frequency offsets than NRZ-and RZ-DPSK systems operating at the same bit rate. We explain the reason for this behavior by means of eye aperture considerations.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 263-265, Feb. 1994.
  2. W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver", in Proc. LEOS, vol. 1, 1999,Paper TuM3,. pp. 226-227.
  3. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40× 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified link", in Proc. OFC 2002, 2002,Paper FC2,. pp. FC2-1-FC2-3.
  4. R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission", in Proc. OFC 2002, 2002, Paper WX6,. pp. 367-368.
  5. R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnstone, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wales, J. Hughes, P. A. Jerram and N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differentialquadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAs/AlGaAs integration", in Proc. OFC 2002, 2002, Paper FD6,. pp. FD6-1-FD6-3.
  6. M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimens, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus and N. Hanik, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 17, pp. 1483-1484, Aug. 2000.
  7. H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz and F. Kuppers, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, vol. 2, 1999,Paper WE4,. pp. 83-85.
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  9. H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 320 -322, Feb. 2003.
  10. S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Pérot filters", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 14, pp. 370-376, Mar. 1996.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Yamazaki and K. Emura, "Feasibility study on QPSK optical-heterodyne detection system", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1646-1653, Nov. 1990.

Other (9)

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 320 -322, Feb. 2003.

S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Pérot filters", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 14, pp. 370-376, Mar. 1996.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 263-265, Feb. 1994.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver", in Proc. LEOS, vol. 1, 1999,Paper TuM3,. pp. 226-227.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40× 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified link", in Proc. OFC 2002, 2002,Paper FC2,. pp. FC2-1-FC2-3.

R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission", in Proc. OFC 2002, 2002, Paper WX6,. pp. 367-368.

R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnstone, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wales, J. Hughes, P. A. Jerram and N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differentialquadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAs/AlGaAs integration", in Proc. OFC 2002, 2002, Paper FD6,. pp. FD6-1-FD6-3.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimens, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus and N. Hanik, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 17, pp. 1483-1484, Aug. 2000.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz and F. Kuppers, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber", in Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, vol. 2, 1999,Paper WE4,. pp. 83-85.

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