Abstract

The design of optical communication networks with network switching elements operating in the optical domain requires careful system analysis and potentially stringent component requirements. We consider here network elements such as transparent optical cross-connects that demultiplex WDM signals,optically switch individual channels, and then multiplex the wavelengths together again before transmission into the next span. Network element optical impairments that can significantly degrade signal quality are in-band (same wavelength) crosstalk and signal distortion from filter concatenation effects. We examine tradeoffs between accumulated crosstalk and filter distortion in the context of the optical filters used in the network elements and demonstrate the balance that must be struck in the design of the filters and network system. As an example, we study a 10-Gb/s network with 50-GHz channel spacing, examining both nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) modulation formats. In both cases, we find optimal filter bandwidths that minimize the total signal degradation measured in terms of Q penalty,including filter misalignment statistics and signal laser frequency offset. A model is developed to treat the statistical nature of filter misalignment and its effect on filter-generated in-band crosstalk. The optical node penalties suffered by RZ signals can be significantly higher than that of NRZ signals and must be considered when estimating overall system reach.

© 2003 IEEE

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Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1997.

R. Hui, M. Vaziri, J. Zhou and M. O'Sullivan, "Separation of noise from distortion for high-speed optical fiber system link budgeting", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 910-912, July 1999.

S. Burtsev, R. Abramov, J. Hurley, S. Kumar, D. Lambert and G. Luther, "Semi-analytical modeling and design tool for WDM RZ systems. Validation results", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Paper MF2, Mar. 2001.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen and R. E. Slusher, "Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, pp. 1390-1402, Aug. 1998.

J. D. Downie, M. Sauer, A. Franzen, D. Ricketts, X. Fu and B. R. Hemenway, "Assessment of optical network impairments through 12 distinct optical nodes at 10.66 Gb/s", J. Optical Networking , vol. 2, pp. 1-9, Jan. 2003.

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner and S. Ahmed, "Performance of cascaded misaligned optical (de)multiplexers in multiwavelength optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1073-1075, Aug. 1996.

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie and R. E. Wagner, "Performance degradations of WDM systems due to laser and optical filter misalignments", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1179-1180, July 1995.

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner and S. Ahmed, "Performance degradation of multiwavelength optical networks due to laser and (de)multiplexer misalignments", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 1348-1350, Nov. 1995.

T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas and T. E. Stern, "Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1414-1416, Nov. 1999.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1411-1413, Nov. 1999.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, C. Reinke and C. Fennelly, "Dispersion-induced power penalty in fiber-Bragg-grating WDM filter cascades using optically preamplified and nonpreamplified receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1406-1408, Oct. 2000.

K.-P. Ho, L.-K. Chen and F. Tong, "Modeling of waveform distortion due to optical filtering", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 223-226, Mar./Apr. 2000.

H. Bock, G. Mohs, C. Furst, H. Geiger and G. Fischer, "Impact of optical demultiplexers on DWDM transmission of 40 Gbit/s channels", presented at the 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications , Munich, Germany,Paper P3.16, Sept. 2000.

G. Castanon, O. Vassilieva, S. Choudhary and T. Hoshida, "Requirement of filter characteristics for 40 Gbit/s-based DWDM systems", presented at the 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications , Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Paper Mo.F.3.5, Sept. 2001.

F. Testa, S. Merli and P. Pagnan, "Fabry-Pérot filter bandwidth effects on end to end transmission performances in a multiwavelength transport network", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1027 -1030, Aug. 1994.

C. Caspar, H. M. Foisel, R. Freund, U. Kruger and B. Strebel, "Cascadability of array-waveguide grating (de)multiplexers in transparent optical networks", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dallas, TX, Feb. 1997, Paper TuE2,. pp. 19-20.

I. Roudas, N. Antoniades, T. Otani, T. E. Stern, R. E. Wagner and D. Q. Chowdhury, "Error probability of transparent optical networks with optical multiplexers/demultiplexers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1254-1265, Nov. 2001.

R. E. Wagner, L. Nederlof and S. De Maesschalck, "The potential of optical layer networks", presented at the OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, Paper TuT3, 2001.

K. Jepsen, et al. "Network demonstration of 32 ?~ × 10 Gb/s across 6 nodes of 640 × 640 WSXC's with 750 km Raman-amplified fiber", presented at the OFC 2000, Baltimore, MD, Postdeadline Paper PD35, Mar. 2000.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen and A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 657-660, May 1994.

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