Abstract

In direct-detection differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) systems,the signal-spontaneous emission beat noise introduces phase noise due to Kerr nonlinearity. In wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems, this nonlinear phase noise comes not only from the channel itself through self-phase modulation (SPM) but also from the other channels through cross-phase modulation (XPM). In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally investigate XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise. We calculate the performance degradation of DPSK systems caused by XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise in addition to SPM-induced phase noise and experimentally verify it using a 600-km nonzero-dispersion-shifted-fiber link.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1576-1582, Nov. 1991.

Other (15)

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold and L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 99-101, Jan, 2003.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 1351-1353, Dec. 1990.

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 320-322, Feb. 2003.

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, T. K. Fong, M. E. Marhic and L. G. Kazovsky, "Cross-phase modulation in dispersive fibers: Theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact of modulation frequency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 733 -735, June 1994.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. New York: Academic, 1995.

M. Shtaif, M. Eiselt and L. D. Garrett, "Cross-phase modulation distortion measurements in multispan WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 88-90, Jan. 2000.

H. Kim and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems", J. Lightwave Technol., to be published.

K. Yonenaga and K. Hagimoto, "10-Git/s × four-channel WDM transmission experiment over 2400-km DSF using optical DPSK direct detection scheme", in Proc. OFC97, 1997, pp. 331 -332.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver", in Proc. LEOS 12th Annu. Meeting, vol. 1, 1999, pp. 226-227.

T. Miyano, M. Fukutoku, K. Hattori and H. Ono, "Suppression of degradation induced by SPM/XPM+GVD in WDM transmission using a bit-synchronous intensity modulated DPSK signal", in Proc. OECC, 2000, pp. 580- 581.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus and N. Hanik, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 17, pp. 1483-1484, Nov. 2000.

J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng and U. Gliese, "DPSK 32 × 10 Gb/s transmission modeling on 5 × 90 km terrestrial system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1627-1629, Dec. 2000.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, G. Castanon, H. Kuwahara, T. Terahara and H. Onaka, "Numerical comparison of NRZ, CS-RZ and IM-DPSK formats in 43 Gbit/s WDM transmission", in Proc. LEOS 14th Annu. Meeting, 2001,Paper ThC2.

J. Leibrich, C. Wree and W. Rosenkranz, "CF-RZ-DPSK for suppression of XPM on dispersion-managed long-haul optical WDM transmission on standard single-mode fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 155-157, Feb. 2002.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 × 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans", in Proc. OFC, 2002, Paper FC2.

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