Abstract

The effect of retroreflecting the pump in discrete Raman amplifiers is investigated. Simulations are used to estimate the increase in gain and efficiency and decrease in multipath interference due to double Rayleigh backscatter for typical module configurations. The effect of reflecting only a portion of the pump spectrum is considered. Experimental measurements confirm the expected increase in gain. Finally, the effect of pump-signal relative intensity noise transfer is investigated experimentally.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Grüner-Nielsen and A. J. Stentz, "Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1136-1137, 1998.
  2. Y. Emori, Y. Akasaka and S. Namiki, "Broadband lossless DCF using raman amplification pumped by multichannel WDM laser diodes", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 2145-2146, 1998.
  3. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.
  4. L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Qian, B. Pálsdóttir, P. B. Gaarde, S. Dyrbøl, T. Veng, Y. Qian, R. Boncek and R. Lingle, "Module for simultaneous C+L -band dispersion compensation and Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC, 2002, Paper TuJ6,. pp. 65-66.
  5. B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable power efficient dispersion compensating fiber bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 854-856, July 1999.
  6. J. V. der Plaats and F. Willems, "RIN increase caused by amplified-signal redirected Rayleigh scattering in erbium-doped fibers", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., San Jose, CA, Paper WM6, 1994.
  7. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 159-161, Jan. 1998.
  8. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 528-530, May 2000.
  9. M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 997-998, 1999.
  10. C. R. S. Fludger and V. Handerek, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 19, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.
  11. S. Kado, Y. Emori, S. Namiki, N. Tsukiji, J. Yoshida and T. Kimura, "Broadband flat-noise Raman amplifier using low-noise bi-directionally pumping sources", presented at the ECOC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Paper PD.F.1.8, 2001.
  12. R. P. Espindola, K. L. Bacher, K. Kojima, N. Chand, S. Srinivasan, G. C. Cho, F. Jin, C. Fuchs, V. Millner and W. C. Dautremont-Smith, "High-power, low RIN, spectrally-broadened 14xx DFB pump for application in co-pumped Raman amplification", presented at the ECOC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,2001.

Other (12)

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Grüner-Nielsen and A. J. Stentz, "Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1136-1137, 1998.

Y. Emori, Y. Akasaka and S. Namiki, "Broadband lossless DCF using raman amplification pumped by multichannel WDM laser diodes", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 2145-2146, 1998.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Qian, B. Pálsdóttir, P. B. Gaarde, S. Dyrbøl, T. Veng, Y. Qian, R. Boncek and R. Lingle, "Module for simultaneous C+L -band dispersion compensation and Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC, 2002, Paper TuJ6,. pp. 65-66.

B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable power efficient dispersion compensating fiber bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 854-856, July 1999.

J. V. der Plaats and F. Willems, "RIN increase caused by amplified-signal redirected Rayleigh scattering in erbium-doped fibers", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., San Jose, CA, Paper WM6, 1994.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 159-161, Jan. 1998.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 528-530, May 2000.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 997-998, 1999.

C. R. S. Fludger and V. Handerek, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 19, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.

S. Kado, Y. Emori, S. Namiki, N. Tsukiji, J. Yoshida and T. Kimura, "Broadband flat-noise Raman amplifier using low-noise bi-directionally pumping sources", presented at the ECOC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Paper PD.F.1.8, 2001.

R. P. Espindola, K. L. Bacher, K. Kojima, N. Chand, S. Srinivasan, G. C. Cho, F. Jin, C. Fuchs, V. Millner and W. C. Dautremont-Smith, "High-power, low RIN, spectrally-broadened 14xx DFB pump for application in co-pumped Raman amplification", presented at the ECOC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,2001.

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