Abstract

This paper presents the design, fabrication, and operation of a newly developed micromechanical optical scanner array using a translating microlens. We have used photoresist reflow techinique to form a microlens on a surface micromachined XY-stage of the scratch-drive actuation mechanism. The lens scanner is placed at the focal length from an incident optical fiber to collimate the transmitting light. The collimated beam is steered two-dimensionally by the XY -motion of the microlens with respect to the incident fiber. We also have developed a theoretical model to predict appropriate initial resist thickness and diameter for the scanning lens. An optical scanning angle of ±7° has been demonstrated by sliding a microlens of 670-µm focal length at a physical stroke of ±67 µm. Typical angular positioning resolution has been estimated to be 0.018°.

© 2003 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. L. Y. Lin, E. L. Goldstein and R. W. Tkach, "Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 4-9, 1999.
  2. M. C. Wu, L. Fan and G.-D. Su, "Micromechanical photonic integrated circuits", Trans. IEICE, vol. E83-C, no. 6, p. 903, 2000.
  3. F. Fujita and H. Toshiyoshi, "Micro-optical devices,"in A Chapter Contributed to P. Rai-Choudhury: Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, Bellingham, WA: SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1997.
  4. J. A. Walker, "The future of MEMS in telecommunications networks", J. Micromech. Microeng., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. R1-R7, Sept. 2000.
  5. D. T. Neilson, V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, K. S. Bhalla, D. J. Bishop, B. A. Boie, C. A. Bolle, J. V. Gates, A. M. Gottlieb, J. P. Hickey, N. A. Jackman, P. R. Kolodner, S. K. Korotky, B. Mikkelsen, F. Pardo, G. Raybon, R. Ruel, R. E. Scotti, T. W. Van Blarcum, L. Zhang and C. R. Giles, "Fully provisioned 112 × 112 micro-mechanical optical crossconnect with 35.8 Tb/s demonstrated capacity", in Proc. 25th Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC'2000), Baltimore, MD, Mar. 7-10 2000, PD12-1.
  6. V. A. Aksyuk, "Beam steering micromirrors for optical telecommunication", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMS 2001, vol. IT-7, Sept. 2001.
  7. R. Sawada, E. Higurashi and A. Shimizu, "Single crystalline mirror actuated electrostatically by terraced electrodes with high aspect ratio torsion spring", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMS 2001, Sept. 2001, pp. 23-24.
  8. H. Toshiyoshi, G.-D. J. Su, J. LaCosse and M. C. Wu, "Micromechanical lens scanners for fiber optic switches", in Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Micro Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS'99), Mainz, Germany,Aug. 30-Sept. 1 1999, pp. 165-170.
  9. S. Glockner, R. Goring, B. Gotz and A. Rose, "Piezoelectrically driven micro-optic fiber switches", Opt. Eng., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1229-1234, Apr. 1998.
  10. H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning and W. Tennant, "Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2687, pp. 150- 5.
  11. C. R. King, L. Y. Lin and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1349-1351, 1996.
  12. H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics: Element, System, and Applications, London: U.K.: Taylor Francis, 1997.
  13. T. Akiyama, D. Collard and H. Fujita, "Scratch drive actuator with mechanical links for self-assembly of three-dimensional MEMS", IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 6, pp. 10-17, Mar. 1997.
  14. L. Fan and M. C. Wu, "Self-assembled micro-XYZ stages for moving micro-ball lenses", in Int. Conf. Optical MEMS and Their Applications (MOEMS 97), Nara, Japan,Nov. 18-21 1997, pp. 45-46.
  15. R. T. Chen, H. Nguyen and M. C. Wu, "A low voltage micromachined optical switch by stress-induced bending", in Proc. 12th Int. Workshop Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 99), Orlando, FL, Jan. 17-21 1999, pp. 424-428.
  16. A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. Ness and Y. C. Lee, "MEMS-controllable microlens array for beam steering and precision alignment in optical interconnect system", in Proc. 2000 Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Hilton Head 2000), Hilton Head Island, SC, June 4-8 2000, pp. 101-104.

Other (16)

L. Y. Lin, E. L. Goldstein and R. W. Tkach, "Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 4-9, 1999.

M. C. Wu, L. Fan and G.-D. Su, "Micromechanical photonic integrated circuits", Trans. IEICE, vol. E83-C, no. 6, p. 903, 2000.

F. Fujita and H. Toshiyoshi, "Micro-optical devices,"in A Chapter Contributed to P. Rai-Choudhury: Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, Bellingham, WA: SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1997.

J. A. Walker, "The future of MEMS in telecommunications networks", J. Micromech. Microeng., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. R1-R7, Sept. 2000.

D. T. Neilson, V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, K. S. Bhalla, D. J. Bishop, B. A. Boie, C. A. Bolle, J. V. Gates, A. M. Gottlieb, J. P. Hickey, N. A. Jackman, P. R. Kolodner, S. K. Korotky, B. Mikkelsen, F. Pardo, G. Raybon, R. Ruel, R. E. Scotti, T. W. Van Blarcum, L. Zhang and C. R. Giles, "Fully provisioned 112 × 112 micro-mechanical optical crossconnect with 35.8 Tb/s demonstrated capacity", in Proc. 25th Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC'2000), Baltimore, MD, Mar. 7-10 2000, PD12-1.

V. A. Aksyuk, "Beam steering micromirrors for optical telecommunication", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMS 2001, vol. IT-7, Sept. 2001.

R. Sawada, E. Higurashi and A. Shimizu, "Single crystalline mirror actuated electrostatically by terraced electrodes with high aspect ratio torsion spring", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMS 2001, Sept. 2001, pp. 23-24.

H. Toshiyoshi, G.-D. J. Su, J. LaCosse and M. C. Wu, "Micromechanical lens scanners for fiber optic switches", in Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Micro Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS'99), Mainz, Germany,Aug. 30-Sept. 1 1999, pp. 165-170.

S. Glockner, R. Goring, B. Gotz and A. Rose, "Piezoelectrically driven micro-optic fiber switches", Opt. Eng., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1229-1234, Apr. 1998.

H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning and W. Tennant, "Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2687, pp. 150- 5.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1349-1351, 1996.

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics: Element, System, and Applications, London: U.K.: Taylor Francis, 1997.

T. Akiyama, D. Collard and H. Fujita, "Scratch drive actuator with mechanical links for self-assembly of three-dimensional MEMS", IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 6, pp. 10-17, Mar. 1997.

L. Fan and M. C. Wu, "Self-assembled micro-XYZ stages for moving micro-ball lenses", in Int. Conf. Optical MEMS and Their Applications (MOEMS 97), Nara, Japan,Nov. 18-21 1997, pp. 45-46.

R. T. Chen, H. Nguyen and M. C. Wu, "A low voltage micromachined optical switch by stress-induced bending", in Proc. 12th Int. Workshop Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 99), Orlando, FL, Jan. 17-21 1999, pp. 424-428.

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. Ness and Y. C. Lee, "MEMS-controllable microlens array for beam steering and precision alignment in optical interconnect system", in Proc. 2000 Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Hilton Head 2000), Hilton Head Island, SC, June 4-8 2000, pp. 101-104.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.