Abstract

A loop-synchronous polarization-scrambling technique has been proposed for the purpose of simulating polarization effects in straight-line systems using recirculating loops. This technique uses a fast polarization controller within a fiber loop. The polarization controller changes its transmission matrix after each round trip of the optical signal circulating through the loop; thus, the periodic polarization transform of the loop is avoided. Moreover,the polarization controller generates a series of random uncorrelated transmission matrixes. Therefore, the mean-square value of differential group delay (DGD) or polarization-dependent loss (PDL) increases linearly with the number of circulations. The matrix expression for a random polarization transform that scatters the state of polarization (SOP) uniformly on the Poincaré sphere for any input SOP was also found. Experiments were performed for a 94-km fiber loop that contains a fixed DGD or PDL element. The histograms of PMD-induced power penalties at 10-9 bit error rate (BER) were measured. There is a good agreement between experimental and theoretical results. Using loop-synchronous polarization scrambling, accurate reproduction of the Maxwellian distribution of DGD can be realized when the background PMD of transmission fiber is much smaller than the PMD intentionally introduced into the loop.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

E. Lichtman, "Limitations imposed by polarization-dependent gain and loss on all-optical ultra-long communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 906-913, May 1995.

N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long-haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 879-888, May 1995.

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk and P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1735-1746, Sept. 1997 .

Other (13)

N. S. Bergano, J. Aspel, C. R. Davidson, P. R. Trischitta, B. M. Nyman and F. W. Kerfoot, "A 9000-km 5 Gb/s and 21 000-km 2.4 Gb/s feasibility demonstration of transoceanic EDFA systems using a circulating loop", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OFC'91, San Diego, CA, Postdeadline Paper PD13.

H. Kogelink, R. M. Jopson and L. E. Nelson, "Polarization mode dispersion,"in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B, I. P. Kaminov, and T. Li, Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002, pp. 725-861.

B. Huttner, C. Geiser and N. Gisin, "Polarization-induced distortions in optical fiber networks with polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 317-329, Mar. 2000.

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1029-1030, 1986.

Q. Yu, S. Lee, Y. Xie, O. H. Adamczyk and A. E. Willner, "A short recirculating fiber loop testbed with accurate reproduction of Maxwellian PMD statistics", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OFC'01, Anaheim, CA,Paper WT2.

Y. Sun, I. T. Lima, Jr., H. Jiao, J. Wen, H. Xu, H. Erefej, G. M. Carter and C. R. Menyuk, "Study of system performance in a 107 km dispersion managed recirculating loop due to polarization effects", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 966-968, Sept. 2001 .

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie and A. E. Willner, "Experimental demonstration of the system performance degradation due to the combined effect of polarization dependent loss with polarization mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 224-226, Feb. 2002.

B. Bakhshi, M. F. Arend, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovchenko, D. Duff, H. Li, S. Jiang, W. W. Patterson, R. L. Maybach and D. Kovsh, "1 Tbit/s (101 × 10 Gbit/s) transmission over transpacific distance using 28 nm C-band EDFAs", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC'2001, Anaheim, CA,Postdeadline Paper PD21.

J.-X. Cai, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. J. Lucero, C. R. Davidson, D. Foursa, H. Kidorf, M. A. Mills, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Sutton and N. S. Bergano, "2.4 Tb/s (120 × 20 Gb/s) transmission over transoceanic distance using optimum FEC overhead and 48% spectral efficiency", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OFC'01, Anaheim, CA,Postdeadline Paper PD20.

Q. Yu, L. Yan and A. E. Willner, "10-Gb/s PMD compensation following a recirculating fiber loop", in Proc. Confe. Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO'01, Baltimore, MD, Paper CFE5.

C. D. Pool, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy and D. A. Fishman, "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 68-70, Jan. 1991.

M. Karlsson and J. Bretel, "Autocorrelation function of the polarization-mode dispersion vector", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 14, pp. 939-941, 1999 .

R. Khosravani, I. T. Lima Jr., P. Ebrahimi, E. Ibragimov, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Time and frequency domain characteristics of polarization mode dispersion emulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 127-129, Feb. 2001.

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