Abstract

We present the design and development of a novel tunable dispersion compensator with fixed center wavelength that is based on the electrical adjustment of the chirp of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Both temperature gradient and strain gradient are employed to adjust the chirp of the FBG jointly. The electrical current flowing through the taper on-fiber thin-film heater will introduce a temperature gradient on the FBG. The shrinkage of a negative thermal expansion coefficient (NTEC) ceramic due to the temperature rise will compress the tapered FBG mounted inside it, and this will introduce a strain gradient on the FBG. The center wavelength of the FBG will be kept fixed because the effect of temperature rise on the FBG and the effect of compression of the FBG will offset each other. Applying an electrical power of less than 0.68W,we demonstrate a linearly chirped FBG whose dispersion can be continuously adjusted from -178 ps/nm to -302 ps/nm with a central wavelength shift of as small as 0.16 nm.

© 2003 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1999.
  2. B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen and B. Mikkelsen, "Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 18, pp. 1418-1432, 2000.
  3. W. H. Hatton and M. Nishimura, "Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 1552-1555, 1986.
  4. A. E. Willner, K.-M. Feng, J. Cai, S. Lee, J. Peng and H. Sun, "Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, pp. 1298 -1311, 1999.
  5. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, New York: Academic, 1999.
  6. J. Lauzon, S. Thibault, J. Martin and F. Ouellette, "Implementation and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings linearly chirped by a temperature-gradient", Opt. Lett. , vol. 19, pp. 2027-2029, 1994.
  7. Z. H. Chen, C. Lu, J. H. Ng, X. F. Yang and T. H. Cheng, "Tunable chirped fiber Bragg gratings by a distributed heater", Opt. Eng. Lett., vol. 40, pp. 1156-1157, 2001.
  8. J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton, J. R. Pedrazzani and T. A. Strasser, "Distributed on-fiber thin film heaters for Bragg grating with adjustable chirp", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 74, pp. 3131-3133, 1999.
  9. P. C. Hill and B. J. Eggleton, "Strain gradient chirp of fiber Bragg grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 1172-1174, 1994.
  10. L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie and J. A. Tucknott, "Fabrication of chirped fiber gratings using etched tapers", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 908-909, 1995.
  11. M. Pacheco, A. Medez, L. A. Zenteni and F. Mendoz-Santoyo, "Chirping optical fiber Bragg gratings using tapered-thickness piezoelectric ceramic", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 2348-2350, 1998.
  12. Y. N. Zhu, P. L. Swart and B. M. Lacquet, "Chirp tuning of a fiber Bragg grating by using different tapered transducers and loading procedures: an application in the accelerometer", Opt. Eng., vol. 40, pp. 2092-2096, 2001.
  13. T. Imai, T. Komukai and M. Nakazawa, "Dispersion tuning of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating without a center wavelength shift by applying a strain gradient", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 845 -847, 1998.
  14. Y. Q. Liu, J. P. Yao, X. Y. Dong and J. L. Yang, "Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam", Opt. Eng., vol. 41, pp. 740-741, 2002.
  15. Y. W. Song, D. Starodubov, Z. Pan, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner and J. Feinberg, "A tunable dispersion compensator with fixed bandwidth for WDM systems using a uniform FBG", in Proc. CLEO , 2001.
  16. J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton, R. J. Jackman, G. R. Kowach and T. A. Strasser, "Dual on-fiber thin film heaters for fiber gratings with independently adjustable chirp and wavelength", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1328-1330, 1999.
  17. H. G. Limberger, N. H. Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, C. A. P. Muller and G. R. Fox, "Efficient miniature fiber-optic tunable filter based on intracore Bragg grating and electrically resistive coating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 361-363, 1998.
  18. A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing", J. Lightwave Technol, vol. 17, pp. 1217-1221, 1999.
  19. J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton and P. Kuo, "Temperature stabilized operation of tunable fiber grating devices that use distributed on-fiber thin film heaters", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 2052-2053, 1999.
  20. A. Richter, T. Andritschke, H. Bock, P. Leisching, D. Stoll, L. Quétel and S. Aguy, "Passive temperature compensation of piezo-tunable fiber Bragg gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1269-1271, 1999.
  21. R. Feced and M. N. Zervas, "Effects of random noise and amplitude errors in optical fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightwave Technol, vol. 18, pp. 90-100, 2000.
  22. S. J. Minailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman and C. Shu, "Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 572-574, 1999.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (21)

H. G. Limberger, N. H. Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, C. A. P. Muller and G. R. Fox, "Efficient miniature fiber-optic tunable filter based on intracore Bragg grating and electrically resistive coating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 361-363, 1998.

A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing", J. Lightwave Technol, vol. 17, pp. 1217-1221, 1999.

J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton and P. Kuo, "Temperature stabilized operation of tunable fiber grating devices that use distributed on-fiber thin film heaters", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 2052-2053, 1999.

A. Richter, T. Andritschke, H. Bock, P. Leisching, D. Stoll, L. Quétel and S. Aguy, "Passive temperature compensation of piezo-tunable fiber Bragg gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1269-1271, 1999.

R. Feced and M. N. Zervas, "Effects of random noise and amplitude errors in optical fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightwave Technol, vol. 18, pp. 90-100, 2000.

S. J. Minailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman and C. Shu, "Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 572-574, 1999.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1999.

B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen and B. Mikkelsen, "Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 18, pp. 1418-1432, 2000.

W. H. Hatton and M. Nishimura, "Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 1552-1555, 1986.

A. E. Willner, K.-M. Feng, J. Cai, S. Lee, J. Peng and H. Sun, "Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, pp. 1298 -1311, 1999.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, New York: Academic, 1999.

J. Lauzon, S. Thibault, J. Martin and F. Ouellette, "Implementation and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings linearly chirped by a temperature-gradient", Opt. Lett. , vol. 19, pp. 2027-2029, 1994.

Z. H. Chen, C. Lu, J. H. Ng, X. F. Yang and T. H. Cheng, "Tunable chirped fiber Bragg gratings by a distributed heater", Opt. Eng. Lett., vol. 40, pp. 1156-1157, 2001.

J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton, J. R. Pedrazzani and T. A. Strasser, "Distributed on-fiber thin film heaters for Bragg grating with adjustable chirp", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 74, pp. 3131-3133, 1999.

P. C. Hill and B. J. Eggleton, "Strain gradient chirp of fiber Bragg grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 1172-1174, 1994.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie and J. A. Tucknott, "Fabrication of chirped fiber gratings using etched tapers", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 908-909, 1995.

M. Pacheco, A. Medez, L. A. Zenteni and F. Mendoz-Santoyo, "Chirping optical fiber Bragg gratings using tapered-thickness piezoelectric ceramic", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 2348-2350, 1998.

Y. N. Zhu, P. L. Swart and B. M. Lacquet, "Chirp tuning of a fiber Bragg grating by using different tapered transducers and loading procedures: an application in the accelerometer", Opt. Eng., vol. 40, pp. 2092-2096, 2001.

T. Imai, T. Komukai and M. Nakazawa, "Dispersion tuning of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating without a center wavelength shift by applying a strain gradient", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 845 -847, 1998.

Y. Q. Liu, J. P. Yao, X. Y. Dong and J. L. Yang, "Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam", Opt. Eng., vol. 41, pp. 740-741, 2002.

Y. W. Song, D. Starodubov, Z. Pan, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner and J. Feinberg, "A tunable dispersion compensator with fixed bandwidth for WDM systems using a uniform FBG", in Proc. CLEO , 2001.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.