Abstract

We introduce a simple and effective heat sink structure for thin-film vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) in fully embedded board level guided-wave interconnects. A 50% quantum efficiency increase is experimentally confirmed for the 10-µm thin-film VCSELs. The thermal resistance of a 1 × 12 embedded thin-film VCSEL array in printed circuit board (PCB) is further analyzed. The experimental results show an excellent match with the simulated results. The 10-µm-thick VCSEL had the lowest thermal resistance and the highest differential efficiency compared to 250-, 200-, 150-, and 100-µm-thick VCSELs. A substrate removed VCSEL can be used in fully embedded board level optical interconnects without special cooling techniques.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. B. Lunitz, J. Guttmann, H. P. Huber, J. Moisel and M. Rode, "Experimental demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/s transmission with 1 m polymer optical backplane", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 17, 2001.
  2. F. Mederer, R. Jäger, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL's over PCB integrated polymer waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, Sept. 2001.
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  5. R. T.T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects", Proc. IEEE, vol. 88, pp. 780-793, June 2000.
  6. Y.-C. Lee, S. E. Swirhun, W. S. Fu, T. A. Keyser, J. L. Jewell and W. E. Quinn, "Thermal management of VCSEL-based optoelectronic modules", IEEE Trans. on Comp., Packag. Manufact. Technol., vol. 19, pp. 540-547, Aug. 1996.
  7. R. Pu, C. W. Wilmsen, K. M. Geib and K. D. Choquette, "Thermal of VCSEL's bonded to integrated circuits", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1554 -1556, Dec. 1999.
  8. T. Yao, "Thermal properties of AlAs/GaAs superlattices", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, pp. 1798-1800, 1987.
  9. J. Piprek, T. Tröger, B. Schröter, J. Kolodzey and C. S. Ih, "Thermal conductivity reduction in GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, Jan. 1998.
  10. C.-K. Lin, S.-W. Ryu and P. D. Dapkus, "High-performance wafer-bonded bottom-emitting 850 nm VCSEL's on undoped GaP and saphire substrates", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 12, Dec. 1999.
  11. H. Fathollahnejad, D. L. Mathine, R. Droopad, G. N. Maracas and S. Daryanani, "Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto silicon substrates by PdGe contacts", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 15, July 1994.
  12. A. Ghiti, M. Silver and E. P. O'Reilly, "Low threshold current and high differential gain in ideal tensile and compressive strained quantum well lasers", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 4626-4628, 1992.
  13. G. Belenky, C. L. Reynolds Jr., L. Shterengas, M. S. Hybertwsen, D. V. Donetsky, G. E. Shtengel and S. Luryi, "Effect of p-Doping on the temperature dependence of differential gail in FP and DFB 1.3-mm InGaAsP-InP multiple-quantum-well lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, Aug. 2000.

Other

B. Lunitz, J. Guttmann, H. P. Huber, J. Moisel and M. Rode, "Experimental demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/s transmission with 1 m polymer optical backplane", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 17, 2001.

F. Mederer, R. Jäger, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL's over PCB integrated polymer waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, Sept. 2001.

D. Krabe, F. Ebling, N. Amdt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang and W. Scheel, "Electrical optical circuit board built for SMT manufacturing", Electronic Packaging and Production, pp. 38-47, July 2000.

E. Griese, "Parallel optical interconnects for high performance printed circuit boards", in Proc. the 6th Int. Conf. on Parallel Interconnects (PI'99),, pp. 173- 183.

R. T.T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects", Proc. IEEE, vol. 88, pp. 780-793, June 2000.

Y.-C. Lee, S. E. Swirhun, W. S. Fu, T. A. Keyser, J. L. Jewell and W. E. Quinn, "Thermal management of VCSEL-based optoelectronic modules", IEEE Trans. on Comp., Packag. Manufact. Technol., vol. 19, pp. 540-547, Aug. 1996.

R. Pu, C. W. Wilmsen, K. M. Geib and K. D. Choquette, "Thermal of VCSEL's bonded to integrated circuits", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1554 -1556, Dec. 1999.

T. Yao, "Thermal properties of AlAs/GaAs superlattices", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, pp. 1798-1800, 1987.

J. Piprek, T. Tröger, B. Schröter, J. Kolodzey and C. S. Ih, "Thermal conductivity reduction in GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, Jan. 1998.

C.-K. Lin, S.-W. Ryu and P. D. Dapkus, "High-performance wafer-bonded bottom-emitting 850 nm VCSEL's on undoped GaP and saphire substrates", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 12, Dec. 1999.

H. Fathollahnejad, D. L. Mathine, R. Droopad, G. N. Maracas and S. Daryanani, "Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto silicon substrates by PdGe contacts", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 15, July 1994.

A. Ghiti, M. Silver and E. P. O'Reilly, "Low threshold current and high differential gain in ideal tensile and compressive strained quantum well lasers", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 4626-4628, 1992.

G. Belenky, C. L. Reynolds Jr., L. Shterengas, M. S. Hybertwsen, D. V. Donetsky, G. E. Shtengel and S. Luryi, "Effect of p-Doping on the temperature dependence of differential gail in FP and DFB 1.3-mm InGaAsP-InP multiple-quantum-well lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, Aug. 2000.

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